Knockdown of the nucleosome binding protein 1 inhibits the growth and invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo
© Ji et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 9 February 2012
Accepted: 15 March 2012
Published: 15 March 2012
The nucleosome binding protein 1 (HMGN5/NSBP1) is a member of the HMGN protein family and is highly expressed in several kinds of cancer. Nevertheless, the role of NSBP1 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unclear. This study aimed to confirm the oncogenic role of NSBP1 in ccRCC using in vitro and in vivo models and explore the mechanism by which NSBP1 contributes to ccRCC tumorigenesis.
NSBP1 expression was detected in renal tissues from 152 ccRCC patients by immunohistochemistry, and examined in ccRCC cell lines by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. ccRCC cells were transfected by NSBP1 RNAi and cell viability, apoptosis and invasion were detected by cell vitality test, flow cytometry and transwell assay in vitro. Xenograft in nude mice was also employed to examine the tumorigenesis of ccRCC cells depleted of NSBP1.
Immunohistostaining showed strong immunoreactivity of NSBP1 in all ccRCC tissues and NSBP1 expression level was associated with tumor grade (p = 0.04). NSBP1 expression at mRNA and protein levels was high in ccRCC cell lines. Knockdown of NSBP1 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibited invasion in 786-O cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2, CyclinB1, VEGF, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, c-fos and c-jun in 786-O cells depleted of NSBP1. In vivo study further showed that knockdown of NSBP1 affected the tumorigenesis of ccRCC cells in nude mice.
NSBP1 plays oncogenic role in ccRCCs by promoting cell proliferation and invasion, and could be exploited as a target for ccRCC treatment.
KeywordsClear cell renal cell carcinoma NSBP1 Apoptosis Cell cycle MMPs
Renal carcinoma is the 13th most common cancer worldwide, with clear cell and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) accounting for most of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) . Radical nephrectomy is effective to cure early and local ccRCCs, but advanced or metastatic ccRCCs barely respond to chemotherapy or radiotherapy and have poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to better understand the pathogenesis of aggressive RCC in order to develop effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of RCC.
NSBP1 is a new member of the high mobility group N (HMGN) protein family that modulates the structure and function of chromatin and plays an important role in transcription, histone modifications, DNA replication and DNA repair in living cells. Early study showed that nucleosome binding protein 1 (HMGN5/NSBP1) was abundantly expressed in prostate cancer . In addition, NSBP1 expression was upregulated in squamous cell carcinoma, metastatic MDA-MB-435HM breast cancer cell line and adenocarcinoma, suggesting that NSBP1 may promote tumorigenesis [4–7].
Our previous studies showed that downregulation of NSBP1 expression caused G2 cell cycle arrest, decreased proliferation rate and increased apoptosis rate in prostate cancer cells in vitro [8, 9]. Nevertheless, the role of NSBP1 in ccRCC development remains unknown.
Tumor invasion and metastasis are complicated processes, among which proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) and angiogenesis (VEGF) are essential steps. ECM degradation can be promoted by the imbalance between proteolytic proteases and their inhibitors. Extensive studies have shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play crucial role in the degradation of ECM to promote tumor invasion and metastasis [10, 11].
Therefore, in this study we investigated the role of NSBP1 in ccRCC. First we detected NSBP1 expression in clinical ccRCC tissues and ccRCC cell lines. Then we examined the effects of lentivirus mediated NSBP1 knockdown on the growth and invasion of ccRCC 786-O cells and xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. The results showed that NSBP1 expression was upregulated in ccRCC tissues and ccRCC cell lines, and NSBP1 knockdown could induce apoptosis and inhibit the proliferation and invasion of ccRCC cells, and further decrease ccRCC tumor growth in nude mice.
A total of 152 patients (aged 52 to 90 years old, median age of 64 years) who underwent surgery from January 2008 to January 2011 in Peking University First Hospital were enrolled in the present study. All patients were of Chinese origin. Paraffin wax-embedded blocks of tumor tissues from each patient were assembled from the archival collections at the Department of Pathology. Survival data of all patients were collected. Among these patients, 20 patients were randomly selected and paired cancer and adjacent tissues were collected from them for Western blot analysis of NSBP1 expression. All adjacent tissues were confirmed to be normal by experienced pathologists. The protocols for the present study were approved by the Ethics Committee of Peking University First Hospital.
The ccRCC cell lines Caki-2, A498, 786-O and the normal renal tubular epithelial line HK-2 were purchased from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA). HK-2 cells were cultured in K-SFM medium (Gibco™ Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY), and other cells were cultured in RPIM-1640 (HyClone, Logan, UT) medium supplemented with 10% Gibco™ FBS (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). All cells were cultured at 37°C in a standard humidified incubator containing 5% CO2 and 95% O2.
Lentivirus RNAi construct and transfection
The siRNA targeting the human NSBP1 (NM_030763) transcript was designed using the software developed by Ambion (Foster, CA, USA) with the following sequence: PscSI616 CACAGCCTTTCTTTAGCATTTCAAGAGAATGCTAAAGAAAGG-CTGTG/CACAGCCTTTCTTTAGCATTCTCTTGAAATGCTAAAGA-AAGGCTGTG. NSBP1 siRNA or control scramble siRNA was cloned into vector. 786-O cells were seeded onto 6-well plates and grown to 60% confluence on the day of transfection. 4 h before transfection, cells were placed in serum-free media. Cells were transfected with 100 nM siRNA vector diluted in RPMI-1640 according to the manufacturer's protocol. Successful knockdown of NSBP1 was analyzed by Western blot analysis and real-time PCR.
Paraffin-embedded tissues were cut into 4 um-thick consecutive sections and were then dewaxed in xylene and rehydrated in graded ethanol solutions. Antigen retrieval was performed following the standard procedure. Sections were cooled and immersed in a 0.3% hydrogen peroxide solution for 15 min to block endogenous peroxidase activity, and then rinsed in PBS for 5 min. Non-specific labeling was blocked by incubation with 5% bovine serum albumin at room temperature for 30 min. Sections were then incubated with primary rabbit anti-human antibody against NSBP1 (diluted in 1:100, Abcam, ab56031, Cambridge, MA) at 4°C overnight, rinsed with PBST, incubated with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated Santa Cruz™ goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Santa Cruz, CA), developed by peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin and DAB, and counterstained by hematoxylin. All slides were examined independently by two pathologists, who were not informed about patients' clinical data. Specimens were then grouped according to stage (T1-T4) and specific staining intensity. The staining intensity was scored as "-" for negative, "+" for moderate, and "++" for strong staining.
Quantitative real-time PCR assay
Total RNA was extracted from the cells using Trizol (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer's protocol. First-strand cDNA was generated using 2 μg total RNA via MMLV-reverse transcriptase using High Capacity RNA-to-cDNA kit (Promega) with random primers. A final reaction of 20 ul was used to determine the mRNA level by real-time PCR using an ABI Prism 7300 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The specific primers were as follows: NSBP1, 5'-TCGGCTTTTTTTCTGCTGACTAA-3'(forward) and 5'-CTCTTTGGCTCCTGCCTCAT-3'(reverse); Actin, 5'-GTGGACATCCGCAAAGAC3'(forward) and 5'-ATCAACGCAATGTGGGAAA-3'(reverse). Thermal cycling was initiated with a denaturation step for 5 min at 94°C followed by 36 cycles done in three steps: 30 s at 94°C, 30 s at 58°C and 1 min at 72°C.
Cell proliferation assay
Cell proliferation was assessed using the CellTiter 96 Aqueous assay kit (Promega, Madison, WI). After transfection, the cells (10,000/well) were seeded in 96-well plates and incubated at 37°C, and cell proliferation was assessed after 96 h based on the absorbance measured at 570 nm using a multiwell spectrophotometer.
Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. After cells were plated in 6-well plates at a density of 1 × 105/well and cultured at 37°C in 5% CO2 incubator for three days, they were transfected with NSBP1 siRNA or scramble siRNA vector, the cells were gently trypsinized and washed with ice-cold PBS after 72 h. At least 20,000 cells were resuspended in 500 μL 1 × binding buffer, stained with 5 μL 7-AAD (25 μg mL-1) and 1 μL Annexin V-PE and immediately analyzed with a FACScalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson, Erembodegem, Belgium).
Western blot analysis
inhibitors. Protein samples(40 ug)were separated in 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels and transferred to PVDF membranes. The membranes were blocked with nonfat milk in TBST, and probed with primary antibodies CyclinB1 (CST-4138), CyclinD1 (CST-2978), Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA, CST-2586), Bax (CST-2772), Bcl-2 (CST-2876), VEGF (CST-2445), VEGFR-2 (CST-2472), MMP-2 (CST-4022), MMP-9 (CST-3852) (CST indicated Cell Signaling Technology, Beverly, MA, USA). c-fos (santa cruz-52), c-jun (santa cruz-1694), GAPDH (santa cruz-137179), or β-Actin (santa cruz-81178), and secondary antibodies goat anti-mouse IgG (santa cruz), goat anti-rabbit IgG (santa cruz) (santa cruz indicated Santa Cruz Biotech, Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Immunoreactivity signals were developed using ECL kit (GE Healthcare Bioscience, Piscataway, NJ, USA). protease and phosphatase with Whole-cell extracts were prepared in RIPA buffer
Cell invasion assay
Cell invasion assay was performed with 24-well Transwell insert (pore size 8 μm, Corning, NY). After transfection, 786-O cells were starved in serum free medium overnight, and 3-5 × 104 cells were resuspended in 200 ul serum-free medium and placed in the upper chambers with 8 μm filter pores in triplicate. The membrane undersurface was coated with 30 ul ECM gel from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse sarcoma (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA, USA) mixed with RPMI-1640 serum free medium in 1:5 dilution for 30 min at 37°. The lower chamber was filled with 500 ul 10% FBS as the chemoattractant and incubated for 48 h. At the end of the experiments, the cells on the upper surface of the membrane were removed by cotton buds, and the cells on the lower surfaPBS-buffered paraformaldehyde and stained with 0.1% crystal violet. Five visual fields were chosen randomly for each insert and photographed under a light microscope at 200 × magnification. The cells were counted and the data were summarized by means ± standard deviation and presented by a percentage of controls. ce of the insert were fixed in 4%.
Gelatin zymography assay
After transfection, the cells were cultured in serum free medium for 24 h. Then the medium was collected by centrifugation at 4,000 rpm for 15 min at 4°C, and subjected to zymographic SDS-PAGE containing 0.1% gelatin (w/v). The gels were washed and incubated in incubation buffer for 48 h, then stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue and destained. The zones of gelatinolytic activity were shown by negative staining.
Tumourigenesis assay in nude mice
Female BALB/cnu/numice (4-6 weeks old, weighed 25-30 g) were maintained in a germ-free environment in the animal facility. NSBP1 knockdown or control 786-O cells were cultured in 100-mm dishes and trypsinized. The cells (10 6 in 100 ul medium) were infused subcutaneously in the armpit area. Tumor diameter was measured every 5 days, and tumor volume was calculated by length × width2× 0.5. Mice were sacrificed after 1.5 months.
Values were represented as mean ± SD for at least triplicate determination, and analyzed using Fisher's exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 13.0 and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
NSBP1 expression is high in ccRCC tissues
Correlation of NSBP1 expression with clinical and pathological characteristics of renal carcinoma
60.4 ± 8.9
59.8 ± 9.7
60.2 ± 9.8
61.3 ± 11
NSBP1 expression is high in ccRCC cells
We examined NSBP1 expression in ccRCC cell lines and the normal renal tubular epithelial line cells by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. NSBP1 protein level was higher in ccRCC cell lines than normal renal tubular epithelial line cells (Figure 1C). Similarly, NSBP1 mRNA level was increased in ccRCC cell lines compared to normal renal tubular epithelial line cells (Figure 1D).
NSBP1 knockdown decreases the proliferation of ccRCC cells
The apoptosis of ccRCC cells was examined by FCM after the cells were transfected with NSBP1 siRNA or scramble siRNA as control. The apoptotic ratio was increased in NSBP1 knockdown 786-O cells compared to control (Figure 2B). To confirm that NSBP1 knockdown could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in ccRCC cells, we examined the expression of apoptosis and cell cycle related proteins and found that Bax protein level was significantly increased while CyclinB1 and Bcl-2 protein levels were decreased in NSBP1 knockdown cells compared with control (Figure 2C). These data provide evidence that NSBP1 modulates cell cycle and antagonizes apoptosis to promote the oncogenic potential of ccRCC cells.
NSBP1 knockdown inhibits the invasion of ccRCC cells
NSBP1 knockdown inhibits ccRCC growth in xenograft nude mice
NSBP1 was identified as a new member of the HMGN protein family in 2001 [12, 13]. As a nuclear protein, NSBP1 modulates the structure and function of chromatin and plays an important role in transcription, DNA replication and repair [14–16]. Interestingly, recent studies demonstrated that NSBP1 expression was abnormally high in a variety of solid tumors, indicating the oncogenic role of NSBP1 [4–7],
In this study, we found that NSBP1 expression was significantly higher in ccRCC tissues and cell lines than normal renal tissue and cell lines. These data suggest that NSBP1 overexpression is correlated with the progression of ccRCC.
To elucidate the role of NSBP1 in the tumorigenesis of ccRCC, we employed loss of function approach via the knockdown of endogenous NSBP1 expression in ccRCC cells. Notably, we found that NSBP1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation rate of ccRCC cells through MTT assay. Furthermore, our experiments showed that knockdown of NSBP1 led to increased Bax expression and decreased CyclinB1, Bcl-2 expression. These results suggest that downregulation of NSBP1 expression causeds G2 cell cycle arrest, decreases the proliferation rate and increases apoptosis rate in ccRCC cells in vitro[17–20].
Metastasis is an important aspect of ccRCC. To characterize the role of NSBP1 in ccRCC metastasis, we employed in vitro invasion assay and found that NSBP1 knockdown led to decreased invasion of ccRCC cells. Tumor invasion and metastasis are crucially dependent on MMPs and VEGF [10, 11, 20]. MMP-2 and MMP-9 play important roles in the degradation of the ECM, including type IV collagen, and their activity and expression are correlated with metastatic abilities and prognosis of cancer[21, 22]. Our results showed that silencing of NSBP1 in 786-O cells decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity based on zymography assay. In addition, we found that MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression as well as the expression of transcription factors c-fos and c-jun were decreased in NSBP1 knockdown cells. These data suggest that NSBP1 modulates the expression of MMPs and VEGF/VEGFR-2 thus influencing the invasion behavior of ccRCC cells.
Finally, to demonstrate that NSBP1 contributes to ccRCC development in vivo, we employed xenograft nude mice model and found that NSBP1 knockdown suppressed tumor growth of ccRCC cells, indicating that NSBP1 promotes the tumorigenicity of ccRCC cells in vivo.
In summary, here we present both in vitro and in vivo evidence that NSBP1 promotes ccRCC cells growth and invasion. NSBP1 plays important role in the regulation of apoptosis and invasion of ccRCC cells by regulating the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, CyclinB1 VEGF/VEGFR-2 and MMPs. Based on these findings, intervention with NSBP1 expression may provide a therapeutic approach in ccRCC development and metastasis.
The work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.30271295 and 30672099) and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No.7092101).
- Ljungberg B, Campbell SC, Choi HY, Jacqmin D, Lee JE, Weikert S, Kiemeney LA: The epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma. Eur Urol. 2011, 60: 615-621. 10.1016/j.eururo.2011.06.049.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hock R, Furusawa T, Ueda T, Bustin M: HMG chromosomal proteins in development and disease. Trends Cell Biol. 2007, 17: 72-79. 10.1016/j.tcb.2006.12.001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang JW, Zhou LQ, Yang XZ, Ai JK, Xin DQ, Na YQ, Guo YL: The NSBP1 expression is up-regulated in prostate cancer cell. Basic Med Sci Clin. 2004, 24: 393-397.Google Scholar
- Huang C, Zhou LQ, Song G: Effect of nucleosomal binding protein 1 in androgen-independent prostatic carcinoma. Zhong hua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2008, 88: 657-660.Google Scholar
- Green J, Ikram M, Vyas J, Patel N, Proby CM, Ghali L, Leigh IM, O'Toole EA, Storey A: Overexpression of the Axl tyrosine kinase receptor in cutaneous SCC-derived cell lines and tumours. Br J Cancer. 2006, 94: 1446-1451. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603135.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li DQ, Hou YF, Wu J, Chen Y, Lu JS, Di GH, Ou ZL, Shen ZZ, Ding J, Shao ZM: Gene expression profile analysis of an isogenic tumour metastasis model reveals a functional role for oncogene AF1Q in breast cancer metastasis. Eur J Cancer. 2006, 42: 3274-3286. 10.1016/j.ejca.2006.07.008.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tang WY, Newbold R, Mardilovich K, Jefferson W, Cheng RY, Medvedovic M, Ho SM: Persistent hypomethylation in the promoter of nucleosomal binding protein1 (Nsbp1) correlates with overexpression of Nsbp1 in mouse uteri neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol or genistein. Endocrinology. 2008, 149: 5922-5931. 10.1210/en.2008-0682.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhou LQ, Song G, He ZS, Hao JR, Na YQ: Effect of inhibiting nucleosomal binding protein 1 on proliferation of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Chin Med J. 2007, 86: 404-408.Google Scholar
- Jiang N, Zhou LQ, Zhang XY: Downregulation of the nucleosome-binding protein 1 (NSBP1) gene can inhibit the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Asian J Androl. 2010, 12: 709-717. 10.1038/aja.2010.39.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mukherjee S, Roth MJ, Dawsey SM, Yan W, Rodriguez-Canales J, Erickson HS, Hu N, Goldstein AM, Taylor PR, Richardson AM, Tangrea MA, Chuaqui RF, Emmert-Buck MR: Increased matrix metalloproteinase activation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Transl Med. 2010, 8: 91-10.1186/1479-5876-8-91.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rak J, Milsom C, May L, Klement P, Yu J: Tissue factor in cancer and angiogenesis: the molecular link between genetic tumor progression, tumor neovascularization, and cancer coagulopathy. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2006, 32: 54-70. 10.1055/s-2006-933341. ReviewView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rochman M, Malicet C, Bustin M: HMGN5/NSBP1: A new member of the HMGN protein family that affects chromatin structure and function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010, 1799: 86-92.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shirakawa H, Herrera JE, Bustin M, Postnikov Y: Targeting of high mobility group-14/-17 proteins in chromatin is independent of DNA sequence. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275: 37937-37944. 10.1074/jbc.M000989200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Catez F, Lim JH, Hock R, Postnikov YV, Bustin M: HMGN dynamics and chromatin function. Biochem Cell Biol. 2003, 81: 113-122. 10.1139/o03-040.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rochman M, Postnikov Y, Correll S, Malicet C, Wincovitch S, Karpova TS, McNally JG, Wu X, Bubunenko NA, Grigoryev S, Bustin M: The interaction of NSBP1/HMGN5 with nucleosomes in euchromatin counteracts linker histone-mediated chromatin compaction and modulates transcription, Mol. Cell. 2009, 35: 642-656.Google Scholar
- Rattner BP, Yusufzai T, Kadonaga JT: HMGN proteins act in opposition to ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors to restrict nucleosome mobility. Mol Cell. 2009, 34: 620-626. 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.04.014.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rozenblat S, Grossman S, Bergman M, Gottlieb H, Cohen Y, Dovrat S: Induction of G2/M arrest and apoptosis by sesquiterpene lactones in human melanoma cell lines. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008, 75: 369-382. 10.1016/j.bcp.2007.08.024.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beauman SR, Campos B, Kaetzel MA, Dedmana JR: CyclinB1 expression is elevated and mitosis is delayed in HeLa cells expressing autonomous CaMKII. Cell Signal. 2003, 15: 1049-1057. 10.1016/S0898-6568(03)00068-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chulu Julius, Huang Wei R, Wang L, Shih Wen L, Liu Hung J: Avian Reovirus Nonstructural Protein p17-Induced G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Host Cellular Protein Translation Shutoff Involve Activation of p53-Dependent Pathways. J Virol. 2010, 84: 7683-7694. 10.1128/JVI.02604-09.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yin J, Chen G, Liu Y, Liu S, Wang P, Wan Y, Wang X, Zhu J, Gao H: Downregulation of SPARC expression decreases gastric cancer cellular invasion and survival. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010, 29: 59-10.1186/1756-9966-29-59.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rink M, Chun FK, Robinson B, Sun M, Karakiewicz PI, Bensalah K, Fisch M, Scherr DS, Lee RK, Margulis V, Shariat SF: Tissue-based molecular markers for renal cell carcinoma. Minerva Urol Nefrol. 2011, 63: 293-308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chang HR, Chen PN, Yang SF, Sun YS, Wu SW, Hung TW, Lian JD, Chu SC, Hsieh YS: Silibinin inhibits the invasion and migration of renal carcinoma 786-O cells in vitro, inhibits the growth of xenografts in vivo and enhances chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil and paclitaxel. Mol Carcinog. 2011, 50: 811-823. 10.1002/mc.20756.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.