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Table 1 Lung cancer chemoprevention trials on retinoic acid analogs

From: Role of retinoic receptors in lung carcinogenesis

Study Drug Number of patients End point Result Reference
ATBC β-Carotene 29,133 Lung cancer Negative/harmful [57]
  α-Tocoferol     
CARET β-Carotene 18,314 Lung cancer Negative/harmful [58]
  Retinol     
EUROSCAN Retinyl-palmitate 2,592 Second primary tumor Negative [38]
  N-Acetycystein     
Physician's Health Study β-Carotene 22,071 Lung cancer Negative [59]
Pastorino et al. Retinyl-palmitate 307 Second primary tumor Positive [35]
Lam et al. ADT 112 Bronchial dysplasia Positive [40]
Kurie et al. Fenretinide 82 Metaplasia Negative [60]
Lippman et al. 13cRA 1,304 Second primary tumor Negative [61]
  1. ATBC, α-Tocoferol, β-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study; CARET, Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Test; ADT, anethole dithioethione (5-[p-methoxyphenyl]-1,2-dithiole-3-thione; 13cRA, 13 cis retinoic acid