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Table 2 Summary of findings (SoF) table using GRADE methodology

From: Low-molecular-weight heparins are superior to vitamin K antagonists for the long term treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: a cochrane systematic review

LMWH compared to VKA for patients with cancer requiring long term anticoagulation for VTE
Patient or population: patients with cancer requiring long term anticoagulation for VTE
Settings: Outpatient
Intervention: LMWH
Comparison: VKA
Outcomes Illustrative comparative
risks* (95% CI)
Relative
effect
(95% CI)
No of
Participants
(studies)
Quality of
the evidence
(GRADE)
Comments
  Assumed risk Corresponding risk     
  VKA LMWH     
Mortality (follow-up: 3–6 months) Population RR 0.95 (0.81 to 1.11) 1346 (4) OO low1,2  
  310 per 1000 294 per 1000 (251 to 344)     
  Low risk population     
  30 per 1000 28 per 1000 (24 to 33)     
  High risk population     
  1000 per 1000 950 per 1000 (810 to 1110)     
Recurrent VTE (binary) (follow-up: 3–12 months) Population RR 0.51 (0.35 to 0.74) 1109 (4) O moderate2  
  139 per 1000 71 per 1000 (49 to 103)     
  Low risk population     
  40 per 1000 20 per 1000 (14 to 30)     
  High risk population     
  160 per 1000 82 per 1000 (56 to 118)     
Major bleeding (follow-up: 3–6 months) Low risk population RR 1.05 (0.53 to 2.1) 1120 (4) OO low2,3  
  30 per 1000 31 per 1000 (16 to 63)     
  High risk population     
  160 per 1000 168 per 1000 (85 to 336)     
Minor bleeding (follow-up: 3–6 months) Low risk population RR 0.85 (0.53 to 1.35) 1120 (4) OOO very low2,4  
  120 per 1000 102 per 1000 (64 to 162)     
  High risk population     
  500 per 1000 425 per 1000 (265 to 675)     
  1. *The basis for the assumed risk (e.g. the median control group risk across studies) is provided in footnotes. The corresponding risk (and its 95% confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI).
  2. CI: confidence interval; LMWH: low-molecular-weight heparin; RR: Risk ratio; VKA: vitamin K antagonists; VTE: venous thromboembolism
  3. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence
  4. High quality: Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect.
  5. Moderate quality: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate.
  6. Low quality: Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate.
  7. Very low quality: We are very uncertain about the estimate.
  8. 1 RR = 0.95 and 95% CI = 0.81–1.11
  9. 2 We could not obtain data for subgroups of patients with cancer in 11 RCTs
  10. 3 RR = 1.05; 95% CI = 0.53–2.10
  11. 4 Inconsistency was severe (I2 = 65%)