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Table 9 A list of studies on psychological distress and quality of life in breast cancer patients (1974–2007)

From: Health-related quality of life in breast cancer patients: A bibliographic review of the literature from 1974 to 2007

Author (s) [Ref.] Years Main focus Results/conclusion(s)
Ferrero et al. [179] 1994 Mental adjustment to cancer in newly-diagnosed non-mtastatic breast cancer(an xploratory study) Strong association between mental adjustment to cancer and reported vague physical symptoms; fighting spirit and denial was associated with better QOL and helpless/hopeless and anxious preoccupation and fatalism were negatively correlated with well-being.
Ganz et al. [180] 1996 Psychosocial concerns 2 and 3 years after primary treatment Problems associated with physical and recreational activities, body image, and sexual functions were observed, although many positive aspects from cancer experience were reported.
Maunsell et al. [181] 1996 Brief psychological intervention vs. Brief psychological intervention + psychological distress screening Distress screening did not improve QOL. Minimal psychological intervention at initial treatment alone was recommended.
Andrykowski et al. [182] 1996 Psychological adjustment in women with breast cancer or benign breast problems Breast cancer patients reported poorer physical health but greater positive psychosocial adaptation and improved life outlook, no difference in psychological distress between two groups.
Marchioro et al. [183] 1996 Evaluation of the impact of a psychological intervention vs. standard care in non-metastatic breast cancer patients Cognitive psychotherapy and family counseling improved both depression and QOL indexes.
Weitzner et al. [184] 1997 QOL and mood in long-term breast cancer survivors Psychological measures were found to be more robust predictors of QOL than the demographic variables; long-term survivors continue to experience significant depression and lower QOL.
Kissane et al. [185] 1998 Psychological morbidity in early-stage breast cancer 45% (135/303) had psychiatric disorder, 42% had depression, anxiety or both; QOL was substantially affected.
Bloom et al. [186] 1998 Intrusiveness of illness in young women with newly-diagnosed breast cancer Intrusiveness of illness mediated the effect of disease and treatment factors on QOL; neither time post-diagnosis nor type of treatment affected the psychological component of QOL.
Longman et al. [187] 1999 Psychological adjustment over time Over time depression burden and anxiety burden persist and each was negatively associated with overall and present QOL.
Cotton et al. [188] 1999 Relationship among spiritual well-being, QOL, and psychological adjustment Spiritual well-being was correlated with both QOL and psychological adjustment, but relationship was found to be more complex and indirect than previously considered.
Ashing-Giwa [189] 1999 Psychological outcome in long-term survivors of breast cancer (focus on African-American) Patients relied on spiritual faith and family support to cope; socio-cultural contexts of the women's lives need to be considered when studying QOL.
Lewis et al. [190] 2001 Cancer-related intrusive thoughts and social support In women with social support cancer-related intrusive thoughts had no significant negative impact on QOL, but in women with low social support there was negative effect on QOL.
Amir and Ramati [191] 2002 Post-traumatic distress disorder (PTSD), QOL, and emotional distress in long term survivors of breast cancer and a control group Higher PSTD, emotional distress and lower QOL in breast cancer mainly due to chemotherapy and disease stage.
Ganz et al. [192] 2003 Psychosocial adjustment 15 months after diagnosis in older women with breast cancer Psychosocial adjustment at 15 months was predicted by better mental health, emotional social support and better self-rated interaction with health care providers.
Bordeleau et al. [193] 2003 Randomized trial of group psychological support vs. control in metastatic breast cancer Supportive-expressive group therapy did not appear to influence QOL.
Badger et al. [194] 2004 Depression burden and psychological adjustment Depression burden had negative effect on psychological adjustment and QOL.
Schreier and Williams [195] 2004 Anxiety in women receiving either radiation or chemotherapy for breast cancer No significant differences for total QOL or any subscales by treatment; trait anxiety was higher for chemotherapy patients; state anxiety was high and did not decrease over the course of the treatment for either group.
Kershaw et al. [196] 2004 Coping strategies in advanced breast cancer patients and their family caregivers Patients use more emotional support, religion and positive reframing strategies while family use more alcohol or drug. In both active coping was associated with higher QOL.
Lehto et al. [197] 2005 Psychological stress factors as predictors of QOL in patients receiving surgery alone vs. adjuvant treatment Psychosocial factors were strongest predictors of QOL but not cancer type or treatment; non-cancer related stresses showed strongest QOL decreasing influence.
Roth et al. [198] 2005 Affective distress in women seeking immediate vs. delayed breast reconstruction after mastectomy Women seeking immediate breast reconstruction showed relatively higher psychological impairment and physical disability.
Okamura et al. [199] 2005 Psychiatric disorders and associated factors after first breast cancer recurrence Patients' psychiatric disorders were associated with lower QOL.
Golden-Kreutz et al. [200] 2005 Traumatic stress, perceived global stress, and life events Initial stress at diagnosis predicted both psychological and physical health at follow-up.
Deshields et al. [201] 2005 Emotional adjustment (at 4 points in time) Primary psychological changes occur quickly after treatment conclusion and then it appeared to become stabled.
Laid law et al. [202] 2005 Self-hypnosis or Japanese healing or. control Positive change in anxiety level, a general increase in mood and a better QOL were observed.
Schou et al. [203] 2005 Dispositional optimism and QOL. Optimism was predictive for better emotional and social functioning one year after surgery; at time of diagnosis and throughout post-diagnosis dispositional optimism was associated with better QOL and fewer symptoms.
Grabsch et al. [204] 2006 Psychological morbidity in advanced breast cancer 42% (97/277) had a psychiatric disorder, 36% depression or anxiety or both. QOL was substantially affected.
Antoni et al. [205] 2006 Stress management after treatment for breast cancer Stress management skill taught had beneficial effects on reduced social disruption, and increased emotional well-being, positive states of mind, benefit finding, positive lifestyle change, and positive affect.
Wonghongkul et al. [206] 2006 Uncertainty appraisal coping Social support was used most to cope and confront-coping used the least; year of survival, uncertainty in illness and harm appraisal influenced QOL.
Yen et al. [207] 2006 Depression and stress in breast cancer versus benign tumor Stress from health problem was the most significant predictor for QOL among malignant group.
Costanzo et al. [208] 2007 Adjustment to life after treatment While breast cancer survivors demonstrated good adjustment on general distress following treatment, some women were at risk for sustained distress.
Wong and Fielding [209] 2007 Change in psychological distress and change in QOL The magnitude of change in psychological distress significantly impacted physical and functional, but not social QOL in breast cancer patients.
Meneses et al. [210] 2007 Psycho-educational intervention and QOL Breast cancer education intervention is an effective intervention in improving QOL during the first year of breast cancer survivorship.