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Table 3 Controlled Clinical Studies on VAE Treatment in Breast and Gynaecological Cancer: Survival

From: Viscum album L. extracts in breast and gynaecological cancers: a systematic review of clinical and preclinical research

Site Stage Intervention (evaluable patients) Survival Outcomes Author, year, reference
    Years (median) Hazard ratio 5-year survival and others P-value 95% CI  
Randomized controlled trials
Breast T1a-3, N0, M0 Iscador (38) 14.8 0.65   0.2 0.34–1.25 Grossarth 2006a [52, 53, 135]
   None (38) 13.8      
  IIIA–IIIB Iscador (17) 6.3 0.46   0.13 0.16–1.31 Grossarth 2001a [59, 135, 166]
   None (17) 2.3      
  T1-3, N0-3, M0, local recurrence Surgery, radiationI, Helixor (192) Not applicableII   69.1% 5-year survival 0.048   Gutsch 1988 [62]
   Surgery, radiationI, CMF (177)    67.7% 5-year survival 0.025   
   Surgery, radiationI (274)    59.7% 5-year survival    
Breast, others All stages Iscador (39) 3.5 (mean)    0.04   Grossarth 2001b [59]
   None (39) 2.5 (mean)      
Cervix IVA-B Iscador (19) 1.83 0.46   0.12 0.18–1.21 Grossarth 2007c [51]
   None (19) 1.92      
Uterus IA-C Iscador (30) 6.29 0.36   0.014 0.16–0.82 Grossarth 2008a [49]
   None (30) 5.17      
  IVA-B Iscador (26) 1.5 1   0.99 0.46–2.16 Grossarth 2008b [49]
   None (26) 2.0      
Ovary IA–IC Iscador (21) 6.75 0.40   0.058 0.15–1.03 Grossarth 2007a [50]
   None (21) 5.58      
  IV Iscador (20) 2.75 0.33   0.033 0.12–0.92 Grossarth 2007b [50]
   None (20) 1.58      
Non-randomized controlled studies
Breast T1-3, N0, M0 Iscador (84)III 11.75 0.42   0.0002 0.27–0.68 Grossarth 2006b [52, 53, 135]
   None (84) 10.13      
  Local recurrence, N0, M0 Iscador (29)IV 5.17    0.0025   Grossarth 2001b [59, 135]
   None (29) 4.33      
  T1-4, N>1, M0 Iscador (38)IV 4.04    0.0516   Ø same study
   None (38) 3.17      
  TX, NX, M1 Iscador (53)IV 3.08    0.0056   Ø same study
   None (53) 2.17      
  I–III Iscador, (76)    29% alive 1985, after 11–14 years not shown   Salzer 1987 [66]
   Radiation, hormone (79)    24% alive 1985, after 11–14 years    
Cervix IB-IVA Iscador (102)III 7.17 0.41   <0.0001 0.27–0.63 Grossarth 2007f [51]
   None (102) 5.92      
  IV Iscador (66)III 2.33 0.54   0.015 0.32–0.89 Grossarth 2007g [51]
   None (66) 1.83      
  I–III Radiation, Iscador (81)    83% 5-year survival 0.05   Fellmer 1966 [67]
   Radiation (709)    69% 5-year survival    
Uterus IIIA–IVB Iscador (95)III 2.75 0.61   0.023 0.39–0.93 Grossarth 2008c [49]
   None (95) 1.67      
  IA-C Iscador (103)III 8.75 0.41   <0.0001 0.26–0.63 Grossarth 2008d [49]
   None (103) 6.67      
Ovary IA–IC Iscador (75)III 6.83 0.47   0.0002 0.31–0.69 Grossarth 2007d [50]
   None (75) 5.83      
  IV Iscador (62)III 1.79 0.62   0.077 0.37–1.05 Grossarth 2007e [50]
   None (62) 1.17      
Genital All stages SurgeryI, radiationI, Iscador (155)    Disease-specific survival partly improved not shown   Majewski 1963 [68]
   SurgeryI, radiationI,(not shown)       
Retrolective pharmaco-epidemiological cohort studies
Breast I–III Conventional therapy, Iscador (710)   0.46   0.038 0.22–0.96 Bock 2004 [70]
   Conventional therapy (732)       
  I–IV Conventional therapy, Eurixor (219)    No difference observedV    Schumacher 2003 [71, 72]
   Conventional therapy (470)       
  1. I Co-intervention (i.e. radiation) applied to part of the group
  2. II Not applicable since more than 50% alive at study termination
  3. III Data from complete set of patient pairs reported
  4. IV Data only from patient pairs with strict matching reported
  5. V No difference could be found due to limited observation time (median < 10 months)
  6. CMF: Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil
  7. P-value, 95% CI (confidence interval): Statistical significance of difference between mistletoe (or other verum) and control group.