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Table 7 In-vitro Studies on Cytotoxicity of VAE in Human Breast or Gynecological Cancer Cells

From: Viscum album L. extracts in breast and gynaecological cancers: a systematic review of clinical and preclinical research

Tumour cell VAE Result   Reference
Breast cancer
MFM-223 Iscador Qu, M, A
Iscador P
ML I
IC50 0.05–0.12 mg/ml
1.89 mg/ml
38 ng/ml
[22]
  Iscador M, Qu,
Abnobaviscum Fr
Inhibition of proliferation 0.1–1 mg/ml
0.01–1 mg/ml
[81]
KPL-1 Iscador Qu, M, A
Iscador P
ML I
IC50 0.1–0.3 mg/ml
1.94 mg/ml
141 ng/ml
[22]
  Iscador M, Qu,
Abnobaviscum Fr
Inhibition of proliferation 1 mg/ml
0,1–1 mg/ml
[81]
  Iscucin® A, M, P, C, Po, T, Qu, S Cytotoxicity 0.1 mg/ml [82]
  Iscador M
ML I
No stimulation of cell proliferation 0.05–5 ng ML/ml
0.01–5 ng/ml
[83]
MCF-7 Iscador Qu, M, A
Iscador P
ML I
IC50 0.09–0.12 mg/ml
1.61 mg/ml
410 ng/ml
[22]
  Lektinol IC50 >10 ng ML I/ml [84]
  Iscador Qu, M, P
(max. 1 or 1.5 mg/ml)
Inhibition of S-phase progression
Induction of apoptosis
  [8587]
  Iscador M
Iscador P
ML I
Iscador Qu
IC50
No influence
185 μg/ml
no activity
0.003 μg/ml
0.0015–15 μg/ml
[88, 89]
  Viscotoxin isoforms (A1, A2, A3, B, 1-PS)
Viscotoxin isoform U-PS
GI50
LC50
0.02–0.8 μg/ml
0.6 to >1 μg/ml
no activity
[90]
  ML I A chain Inhibition of proliferation 0.5 μg/ml [91]
  ML I, ML II, ML III Inhibition of proliferation 1–10 ng/ml [91]
  TNF & ML I (100 ng/ml) Potentiation of TNF-cytotoxicity   [92]
  Lektinol IC50 0.003 μg/ml [93]
  Helixor P
ML I
IC50 > 150 μg/ml
0.086 μg/ml
[94]
  Iscucin M, P, C, Po, T, Qu, S
Iscucin A, Pi
Cytotoxicity 0.1 mg/ml
no activity
[82]
MCF-7/ADR Lektinol IC50 (SRB assay) 0.3 E-4 μg/ml [93]
MAXF 401NL Helixor P
ML I
IC50 0.66 μg/ml
0.003 μg/ml
[94]
  Iscador M
Iscador P
ML I
Iscador Qu
IC50
>70% growth inhibition
< 3 μg/ml
no activity
0.353 E-4 μg/ml
10 μg/ml
[88, 89]
MAXF 401 Lektinol IC50 < 0.1 E-4 μg/ml [93]
MAXF 1162 Lektinol IC50 < 0.1 E-4 μg/ml [93]
MAXF 449 Lektinol IC50 0.2 E-4 μg/ml [93]
MAXF MX1 Lektinol IC50 < 0.1 E-4 μg/ml [93]
MDA-MB-231 Lektinol IC50 0.7 E-4 μg/ml [93]
  Helixor P
ML I
IC50 135 μg/ml
0.041 μg/ml
[94]
MDA-MB-468 Helixor P
ML 1
IC50 47 μg/ml
0.006 μg/ml
[94]
MDA-MB-486-HER2 Iscador M Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation 0.5 μg/ml [95]
Colo-824 Iscador M
ML I
No stimulation of cell proliferation 0.05–5 ng ML/ml
0.01–5 ng/ml
[83]
HCC-1937 Iscador Qu, M, A
Iscador P
ML I
IC50 0.1 to 0.3 mg/ml
2.14 mg/ml
320 ng/ml
[22]
  Iscucin A, M, P, C, Po, T, Qu, S Cytotoxicity 0.1 mg/ml [82]
BT474 Helixor M, A Cytotoxicity (WST-1) Maximum (80 and 100%) with 25 mg/ml [96]
Primary breast cancer Iscador M, Qu
Abnobaviscum Fr
Mitochondrial activity (MTT) 50–80% with 0.1–0.001 mg/ml [81]
  Abnobaviscum M Inhibition of proliferation 0.5–50 μg/ml [97]
  ML I Inhibition of proliferation 1–50 ng/ml [20, 98]
T47D ML I, II, III IC50 > 0.1 – 1 ng/ml [99]
  ML I A-chain Inhibition of proliferation 10 ng/ml [91]
BT549 ML I A-chain Inhibition of proliferation 500 ng/ml [91]
HBL100 ML I A-chain Inhibition of proliferation 100 ng/ml [91]
Breast cancer cells ML II, ML III, viscotoxins Cytotoxicity   [100]
Ovarian cancer
OVXF 1619L Helixor P
ML I
IC50 119 μg/ml
0.100 E-3 μg/ml
[94]
OVXF 899L Helixor P
ML I
IC50 >150 μg/ml
0.229 μg/ml
[94]
SKOV-3 (HER-2 expression) Recombinant ML I IC50
Induction of apoptosis
0.033 ng/ml [101]
OVCAR3 Iscador Qu, M
(max. 1 or 1.5 mg/ml)
Inhibition of S-phase progression,
Induction of apoptosis
No clear effect [87]
OVXF 899 Lektinol IC50 0.3 E-3 μg/ml [93]
OVXF 1353 Lektinol IC50 0.01 μg/ml [93]
OVXF 1023 Lektinol IC50 < 0.1 E-4 μg/ml [93]
SKOV3 Lektinol IC50 < 0.1 E-4 μg/ml [93]
Primary ovarian cancer Abnobaviscum M Inhibition of proliferation 5 μg/ml [97]
Uterine cancer
UXF 1138L Iscador M
Iscador P
ML I
Iscador Qu
IC50
Growth inhibition >30%
6.8 μg/ml
No activity
0.16 E-4 μg/ml
15 μg/ml
[88, 89]
UCL SK-UT-1B Helixor P
ML I
IC50 > 150 μg/ml
0.038 μg/ml
[94]
SK-UT-1B Lektinol IC50 0.6–5.5 ng ML I/ml [84]
  ML I Inhibition of proliferation 0.5–500 ng/ml [98, 102]
  Iscador M
ML I
No stimulation of cell proliferation 0.05–5 ng ML/ml
0.01–5 ng/ml
[83]
SK-UT-1 ML I Inhibition of proliferation 0.5–500 ng/ml [98, 102]
MES-SA ML I Inhibition of proliferation 0.5–500 ng/ml [98, 102]
Primary uterus cancer Abnobaviscum M Inhibition of proliferation 5–50 μg/ml [97]
Vulvar cancer
SK-MLS-1 Lektinol IC50 2 to >5 ng ML I/ml [84]
  ML I Inhibition of proliferation: 0.5–500 ng/ml [98, 102]
  Iscador M
ML I
No stimulation of cell proliferation 0.05–5 ng ML/ml
0.01–5 ng/ml
[83]
Cervical cancer
  HeLa TNF & ML I (100 ng/ml) Potentiation of TNF-cytotoxicity [92]
  ML I Inhibition of protein synthesis 100 μg/ml [12, 103]
  Protein fractions Complete inhibition of DNA-, RNA-synthesis
Proliferation
1 μg/ml
no effect
[104]
  Viscotoxins IC50 0.2–1.7 μg/ml [105]
  Helixor M Growth inhibition ≥ 0.01 mg/ml [106]
  Isorel® Cytotoxicity 30 μg/μl [107]
  Isorel A, M, P,
ML I
Cytotoxicity > 1 μl/ml
> 1 μg/ml
[108]
  Iscador M
Helixor M
VAE M
LC50 16 μg/ml
35,4 μg/ml
3,9 μg/ml
[109, 110]
  Iscador M, Qu
Abnobaviscum Fr
Growth inhibition 0.1–1 mg/ml
0.01 mg/ml
[81]
  1. GI50: 50% growth inhibitory concentration
  2. LC50: 50% lethal concentration
  3. IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration
  4. MCF-7/ADR: adriamycin(doxorubicin)-resistant MCF-7 cell line
  5. HER: human epidermal growth factor receptor