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Table 8 Animal Studies of VAE on Breast or Gynaecological Cancer (transplanted human or murine tumours or primary autochthonous tumour)

From: Viscum album L. extracts in breast and gynaecological cancers: a systematic review of clinical and preclinical research

Tumour, site Animal VAE, application and dosage Tumour growth
T/C
Survival
ILS
Other outcomes Reference
Human breast Mice      
MAXF 449, sc Nude mice Local Abnobaviscum Qu 8 or 4 or 2 mg/kg, it, qd * 3 6 to 20%    [116]
   Systemic Abnobaviscum Qu 8 mg/kg, it, qd * 3 78%    
MAXF 449, sc Nude mice Abnobaviscum M 8 mg/kg, sc, qd * 3 * 2 w 68%    [116]
BT474, sc Mice (BALB/c) Helixor M or A 5 mg, it, qd * 3 * 2 w 29 to 52%    [96]
Murine breast       
Carcinoma, sc, iv Mice (CBA/HZgr) Isorel M, 3 mg, sc, qod * 21 No difference   Lung-metastases: VAE vs. control: 13.4 vs. 37.5 [117]
Carcinoma, sc Mice (CBA/HZgr) Isorel M, 1400 mg/kg, 2 w 20%    [118]
Carcinoma, sc Mice (CBA/HZgr) Isorel M, 140 mg/kg    Recurrence after resection, VAE vs. control: 47% vs. 78% [118]
Carcinoma, iv Mice (CBA/HZgr) Isorel M, 140 mg/kg, ip    52 lung-metastases [118]
   Endoxan, 50 mg/kg    23 lung-metastases  
   Isorel M, 140 mg/kg & Endoxan 50 mg/kg    10 lung-metastases  
   Control    76 lung-metastases  
C3H adenocarcinoma, 16/C Mice (B6C3F1) Iscador M, 50 or 100 mg/kg, ip, qd, day 1–14 28% 15 to 20%   [119]
RC adenocarcinoma, sc Mice (DBA) VAE I, sc 20 to 40%    [111]
ECa, ip Mice (NMRI) VAE (supracritical CO2 extraction), 2 mL/kg, ip, qd, starting day -7, day 0, or day 7 65 to 100%II    [120]
ECa, ip Mice (BALB/c) Iscador, 15 μg, ip, day -1   108%   [121]
   Sodium caseinate & Iscador, 15 μg, ip, day -1   no death   
   Sodium caseinate, day -1   0%   
ECa, ip Mice (BALB/c) Iscador, 15 μg, ip, day 6   82%   [121]
   Sodium caseinate, day 6   7%   
ECa, ip Mice (BALB/c) Iscador-activated macrophages, ip, day 6   49%   [121]
   Non-activated macrophages, ip, day 6   4%   
ECa, ip Mice (BALB/c) Iscador activated macrophages, ip, day 6, 10, 14   98%   [121]
   Non-activated macrophages, ip, day 6, 10, 14   9%   
ECa, sc Mice (BALB/c) Iscador, 15 μg, it, day 7    Severe necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages [122]
ECa, sc Mice (Swiss) Iscador M, 1.66 mg, im, qod * 5 or 10 3 to 10%    [123]
ECa, ip Mice (Swiss) Iscador M, 1.66 mg, ip, qod * 10   76%   [123]
ECa, ip Mice (Swiss) Iscador M, 25 or 50 mg/kg, ip, qd * 14   69 to 97% No tumour-free mice [119]
ECa, ip Mice (Swiss) Iscador M, sc, cumulative dose 4, 5, 150, or 200 mg   -4 to 0%   [124]
ECa, sc Mice VAE, it, 0.1–0.2 ccm, qod * 6–10    Complete remission & no recurrence: 27% [125, 126]
Murine breast Rats      
Walker carcinosarcoma 256; sc Rats (Sprague Dawley) Iscador M, sc, cumulative dose 11, 16, 500, or 750 mg or combination of Iscador M, sc, cumulative dose 11 or 500 mg & Cetraria praeparata, cumulative dose 3 or 164 mg 93 to 115% -16 to 8%   [124]
Dunning DMBA-5A; sc Rats Iscador M, 2.5–15 mg, ip, qd No difference   Less tumour viability [127]
Walker carcinosarkoma 256 Rats Iscador M, 0.005–0.5 mg, im, qd No difference   Metastases: no difference [128]
Autochthonous       
Methylnitrosurea-induced Rats (Sprague Dawley) Iscador M c. Arg., sc, 0,2 ml/day, 50 mg/week * 6 weeks 75% -16%   [124]
  1. sc: subcutaneous; im: intramuscular; it: intratumoural; ip: intraperitoneal; iv: intravenous; w: week;
  2. qod: every other day; qd: every day; T/C: treated tumour/control tumour; ILS: increase in life span
  3. All experiments did have control groups, but these were only mentioned if necessary for results
  4. I Part of a screening programme for substances with anticancer activity (1,000 plant extracts from 107 plant species)
  5. II Relating to volume of ascites; effects greatest with therapy started on day -7