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Table 9 Animal Studies of VAE Compounds in Breast or Gynaecological Cancer (transplanted human or murine tumours)

From: Viscum album L. extracts in breast and gynaecological cancers: a systematic review of clinical and preclinical research

Tumour, site Animal VAE Tumour growth
T/C (%)
Survival Other outcomes Reference
Human breast tumour
Breast Mice rML 0,3 ng/kg – 3 μg/kg, ip, qd * 5 * 2–4 w No effect    [129]
Murine breast tumour in mice
C3L5, adenocarcinoma; sc Mice (C3H7HeJ) ML I, 1 ng/kg, sc, q3d, day 7–19 160   27.6 lung-metastases [130]
   IL-2, twice 6 × 104 IU/mouse, ip q8h 2 * qd * 5 43   2.3 lung-metastases  
   Combination of ML 1 & IL-2 37   2.3 lung-metastases  
   Control    7.5 lung-metastases  
ECa, ip Mice (ICR) ML I, 80 ng, ip, day 1   70% died after 50 days   [131]
   A-chain of ML I, 100 μg, ip, day 1   80% died after 57 days   
   B-chain of ML I, 10 μg, ip, day 1   80% died after 58 days   
   Control   100% died after 20 days   
ECa, sc Mice (BALB/c) VAE 5 kDa peptides, 2 μg, it, day 7    Severe necrosis, infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages [122]
ECa, ip Mice (CD-1) Vester' Proteins, ip, 0.1 or 1 or 10 μ/kg, qd * 10   ILS: 0, 33, and -33%I   [132]
ECa Mice Polysaccharide („Viscumsäure“), ip, qd * 6 Slight effect    [133]
Adenocarcinoma EO 771 Mice Polysaccharide („Viscumsäure“), ip, qd * 6 Moderate effect    [133]
Murine breast tumour in rats
Walker Carcinosarcoma Rats Polysaccharide („Viscumsäure“), ip, qd * 6 Moderate effect    [133]
Other gynaecological tumour
Ovary, SoTü 3, ip Mice (SCID) rML 30 ng/kg, ip, qd * 5 * 12   35% mice alive at day 84 40% tumour-free mice at day 84 [134]
   rML 150 ng/kg, ip, qd * 5 * 12   10% mice alive at day 84 10% tumour-free mice at day 84  
   rML 500 ng/kg, ip, qd * 5 * 12   75% mice alive at day 84 65% tumour-free mice at day 84  
   Control   15 mice alive at day 84 10% tumour-free mice at day 84  
Uterusepithelioma T-8 Guérin Rats Polysaccharide ("Viscumsäure"), ip, qd * 6 Moderate effect    [133]
  1. All experiments did have control groups, but these were only mentioned if necessary for results.
  2. sc: subcutaneous; it: intratumoural; ip: intraperitoneal; iv: intravenous; w: week;
  3. qod: every other day; qd: every day; T/C: treated tumour/control tumour; ILS: increase in life span.
  4. I Application of 10 μg/kg of proteins had toxic effects