The expression of CXCR4 in tumor tissue and adjacent liver tissue reflects the characteristic pathology of cancer. (A-C) Representative images of CXCR4 staining. Tumor tissue was treated with the CXCR4 antibody. The red cells are represented as CXCR4-positive cells. (A) Negative CXCR4-staining cells; (B) Weakly positive staining cells; (C) Positive staining cells. Statistical analysis indicated that 73.9% of all 23 cases were negative, and 6 cases, which occupied 26.1% of all cases, were positive. Magnification: ×200. (D) Representative images of CXCR4 staining. Adjacent liver tissue was treated with the CXCR4 antibody. The red cells indicate CXCR4-positive cells. The CXCR4 cells expressed in inflamed hepatic tissue were mainly located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Magnification: 400×. (E-G) CXCR4-positive cells expressed in inflamed hepatic tissue. (E) CXCR4-positive cells located in the liver nucleus; (F) CXCR4-positive cells located in bile canaliculi endothelial cells; (G) CXCR4-positive cells located in hepatic sinusoid endothelial tissue. Magnification: ×400. (H) Negative CXCR4 staining in HCC tissue without PVTT. (I) Positive CXCR4 staining in HCC tissue without PVTT. (J-K) The percentage of positive CXCR4-cells expressed in PVTT tissue is 52.2%. In Figure J, CXCR4 was stained as weakly positive, as opposed to Figure K, which showed positive staining. Magnification: ×200.