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Table 1 Efflux pumps described as hyperexpressed and/or hyperfunctional in malignant tumor cells or tumors

From: Proton pump inhibitors as anti vacuolar-ATPases drugs: a novel anticancer strategy

Type of pump Cellular localization Function References
H+ATPase Cytoplasm plasmamembrane and acidic organelles Acidification of extracellular microenvironment and endo-lysosomal compartment [21, 35]
Na+/H+ ATPase Cytoplasm plasmamembrane Alcalinization of cytosol and acidification of extracellular microenvironment [51]
MCT1 (H+/Lactate symporters) Cytoplasm plasmamembrane Elimination of lactate as glucose catabolism product and acidification of extracellular milieu [52]
Carbonic anhydrase Cytoplasm plasmamembrane Regulation of intracellular pH and pH gradients [53]
H+/K+ ATPase Gastric parietal cells Regulation of extratracellular pH [54, 59]
ATP- binding cassette Cytoplasm and intracellular membranes Transport and extrusion of chemotherapeutic drugs [5558]