TNFα response in RAW264.7 cells treated with GTA+ve and GTA-ve extracts. RAW264.7 cells were pre-treated for 4 hours with GTA+ve or GTA-ve extracts followed by the addition of LPS (1 ug/ml) for 20 hours. (A) TNFα mRNA transcripts as determined by real-time rtPCR, (B) TNFα relative protein levels in cell lysates following 80 ug/ml treatment, and (C) TNFα protein levels in conditioned media as determined by ELISA. Asterisks indicate p < 0.05 relative to LPS treatment alone. Data are expressed as the average of three duplicate experiments ± 1S.D.