Alcohol induces cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner. Human breast cancer cells were treated with 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5% v/v ethanol for the invasion assay. (A) The top panel shows the average number of T47D cells per field that have invaded through the basement membrane-like Matrigel layer and into the lower Boyden chamber following the invasion assay. Diff-Quik staining of the lower chamber following the assay is shown below. The number of cells in the lower chamber is a direct measurement of cell invasion. (B) Invasion assay results are shown using MCF-7 (low invasive potential, top panel) and MDA-MB-231 (high invasive potential, bottom panel) breast cancer cells. (*p < 0.05, as compared to the control cells with no alcohol treatment).