Pure curcumin upregulated the expression of miR-15a/16-1 in leukemic cell lines and primary AML blasts. (A and C) The expression of miR-15a and miR-16-1 were detected by qRT-PCR after K562 and HL-60 cells were treated with different concentration of curcumin for 48 hours. (B and D) K562 and HL-60 cells were treated with 20 uM or 10 uM curcumin respectively for 24, 48, and 72 hours, then the relative expressions of miR-15a and miR-16-1 were detected by qRT-PCR. Data are shown as mean ± SD from three independent experiments. (E and F) Primary leukemic cells were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and were treated with 20 uM pure curcumin for 48 hours, then the levels of miR-15a and miR-16-1 were detected by qRT-PCR. # and &represent less than 0.01 of P-values as compared to control.