Induction of cell death by EA in A498 RCC cells. A498 cells were cells were treated with EA at 50 and 100 nM. Control cells received 0.1% DMSO (vehicle). All conditions were performed in triplicate. Cells were then incubated with additions for 24 or 48 h before measuring viability using the PrestoBlue® assay (A). A498 cells were treated with 100 nM EA or vehicle for 24 and 45 h durations. Apoptosis was determined by measuring cytoplasmic histone-associated-DNA-fragments using the Cell Death Detection ELISAPLUS assay kit (B). A498 cells were treated with 100 nM EA or with 0.1% DMSO (control) for 24 and 46 h. Cells were then trypsinized, washed with ice cold PBS, and stained with Alexa Fluor® 488 annexin V and PI and analyzed by flow cytometry (C).