Changes in cytokine levels between T0 (before the induction of anesthesia) and T1 (6–8 hours post-surgery) and between T0 and T2 (5 days post-surgery) in all cases, in TIVA-TCI, and BAL. TIVA-TCI and BAL patients showed a marked and significant increase in IL-6 at T1 compared to values prior to surgery (T0) (p = 0.005), with an increase of about 50 times. These values were reduced at T2, but remained about 10 times higher than baseline values (p = 0.005). There were no significant differences between the TIVA-TCI and BAL groups. The TIVA-TCI group showed a significant increase in TNF-α levels between T2 and T0 compared to the BAL group (2.34 vs. 1.29 times, p = 0.001). At T1, differences were not statistically significant due to the high variability observed. Similarly, the increase in IFN-γ observed at T2 was significantly different in patients undergoing TIVA-TCI anesthesia compared to BAL. IFN-γ levels showed an increase of 2.26 times at T2 compared to T0 in the TIVA-TCI group and only 1.03 times in the BAL group (p = 0.002). The values of other cytokines remained constant during the three measurements in both groups.