RANKL enhances Snail and Twist expression and induces changes in the morphology of cells. (A) Analysis of cell morphology after cell treatment of with 100 ng/mL RANKL. RANKL induces changes in the epithelial morphology of 4T1, MCF-7, and NMuMG cells (×40 magnification). (B-D) Total RNA was extracted, and the mRNA expression levels of vimentin, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, and Twist were determined by real-time PCR. The results are expressed as treated over control ratio after correction to GAPDH mRNA levels. The results are representative of 5 independent experiments. *p < 0.01, as compared to controls (ANOVA with Dunnett’s test).