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Table 2 Characteristics of studies of metabolic syndrome and parameters of prostate cancer

From: The association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, advanced prostate cancer, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence

Author yr (ref. no.) Country Study design Population Mean age,yr Time period Definition Vof MetS No. of cases Outcomes RRs 95% CI
B.K 2007 [29] Korea Cross-section study Patients who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy 64.8 ± 6.2 2004-2006 NCEP-ATP-III 261 Gleason score ≥7(4 + 3) 0.972 0.637-1.482
Clinical stage ≥ T3 0.991 0.532-1.846
Beebe-Dimmer 2009 [20] United States Case-control study GECAP 62.3 1999-2004 NCEP-ATP-III 637 Gleason score ≥7(4 + 3) 1.2 0.64-2.27
Clinical stage ≥ T3 1.17 0.55-2.51
Castillejos-Molina 2011 [23] Mexico Case-control study Patients with PC who underwent surgical treatment 64.8 ± 6.97 1990-2007 WHO 210 Gleason score >7 3.346 1.144-9.791
Clinical stage ≥ T3 1.628 0.915-2.896
Kheterpal 2012 [24] United States Cross-section study Patients who underwent robot assisted radical prostatectomy 60.7 ± 6.9 2005-2008 IDF 2756 Gleason score ≥7(4 + 3) 1.328 0.978-1.802
Clinical stage ≥ T3 1.416 1.109-1.808
De Nunzio 2011 [25] Italy Cross-section study Patients who underwent prostate biopsy for PSA > 4 ng/ml or abnormal DRE 69 2009-2011 NCEP-ATP-III 83 Gleason score ≥7 3.82 1.33-10.9
Clinical stage ≥ T3 NA NA
Jeon 2012 [28] Korea Cross-section study Patients who underwent prostate biopsy for PSA > 4 ng/ml or abnormal DRE 68.86 ± 8.95 2003-2011 NCEP-ATP-III 90 Gleason score ≥7(4 + 3) 0.101 0.022-0.473
Clinical stage ≥ T3 NA NA
Morote 2012 [26] Spain Cross-section study Patients who underwent prostate biopsy for PSA > 4 ng/ml or abnormal DRE 68(46-79) 2006-2010 NCEP-ATP-III 848 Gleason score >7 1.75 1.260-2.414
Clinical stage ≥ T3 NA NA
Castillejos-Molina 2011 [23] Mexico Case-control study Patients with PC who underwent surgical treatment 64.8 ± 6.97 1990-2007 WHO 210 Biochemical recurrence 2.73 1.65-4.50
Post 2011 [27] United States Case-control study Patients who underwent radical prostatectomy 60.9 1999- 2004 NCEP-ATP-III 383 Biochemical recurrence 1.5 0.90-2.6
Jaggers 2009 [30] United States Cohort study Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study 20-88 1977-2003 NCEP-ATP-III 185 Mortality 1.32 0.63-2.77
Martin 2009 [14] Norway Cohort study HUNT2 48 ± 16.4 1996-2005 NCEP-ATP-III 107 Mortality 0.81 0.52-1.25
Häggström 2012 [19] Norway Sweden Austria Cohort study Me-Can 44 NA Upper quartile Levels ATP-III criteria 961 Mortality 1.13 1.03-1.25
  1. PCa = prostate cancer; RRs = Relative risks; CI = confidence interval; WHO = World Health Organization; NCEP-ATP-III = National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III; IDF = International Diabetes Federation; HUNT 2 = Nord-Trondelang Health Study; NA = Not available; DRE = Digital rectal examination.