The effect of inflammatory E-cadherin + DCs on CD4 helper T cell, CEA-specific CD8+ T cell and CD103 + CD8+ T cell responses in an orthotopic lung tumour model. (A) The microscopic image of a Lewis cell, an HE-stained image and the established orthotopic lung tumour model at day 7 (at day 7, 2 tumour-bearing mice were sacrificed, and the tumour tissues were stained with HE). (B) The variations of orthotopic lung tumour volume (day 28) in response to injection of E-cadherin + DCs, E-cadherin- DCs and PBS (each group, n = 5) and representative image of the tumours formed. (C) The percentage of CEA tetramer + CD8+ T cells and CD103 + CD8+ T cells, as gated on CD8+ T cells, in the E-cadherin + DCs, E-cadherin- DCs and PBS groups. The tumour-bearing mice had been injected with E-cadherin + DCs or E-cadherin- DCs and sacrificed at day 28. Tumour tissues (each group n = 3) were analysed by qPCR and western blotting to assess Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells. (D) Relative gene expression of T-bet, GATA3, Foxp3 and RORγt by PCR. (E) Relative protein expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, TGF-β and IL-17 by western blotting. Each experiment was performed in triplicate. An asterisk indicates a significant difference between the two test groups, as analysed by Student’s t-test (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 and ****P < 0.0001).