Combining DCA with PENAO inhibited the growth of GBM cells
. (A) Anti-proliferation effect of PENAO on a panel of GBM cells and non-cancerous cells after 72 hr treatment. (B) Viable cell number after 72 hr DCA treatment. (C) Viable cell number after 72 hr treatment of 3.5 μM PENAO, 20 mM DCA and their combination. (D) The clonogenicity of GBM cells (DBTRG and LN229) treated with PENAO, DCA and the combination. (E) Cell cycle distribution of GBM cells (U87 and BAH1) after 24 hr treatment with PENAO, DCA and PENAO-DCA combination. Results are presented as means ± s.d. of three experiments. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, #p < 0.01 vs PENAO.