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Table 1 Cohort characteristics, N = 106

From: Piwi-interacting RNAs as novel prognostic markers in clear cell renal cell carcinomas

Characteristics Primary ccRCC, non-metastatica N = 76 Primary ccRCC, metastatica N = 30 P valueb
Age, median years (range) 65 (37–87) 61 (43–76) 0.153
Sex, n (%)
 Male 58 (76) 21 (70) 0.621
 Female 18 (24) 9 (30)  
Pathological stage, n (%)
 pT1 48 (63) 5 (17) <0.0001
 pT2 2 (3) 1 (3)  
 pT3 25 (33) 21 (70)  
 pT4 1 (1) 3 (10)  
Fuhrman grade, n (%)
 G1 11 (14) 0 (0) <0.0001
 G2 60 (79) 11 (37)  
 G3 3 (4) 16 (53)  
 G4 2 (3) 3 (10)  
Surgical margins, n (%)
 R0 71 (93) 21 (70) 0.003
 R1/2 5 (7) 9 (30)  
Tumor size, median mm (range) 48 (20–180) 85 (35–170) <0.0001
Patients followed,c n (%) 76 (100) 30 (100) <0.0001
 Metastasis at follow-up 17 (29)   
 Death at follow-up 12 (16) 25 (83)  
Follow-up, median month (range)
 Overall 65.7 (1.0121) 9.5 (1.265.2) <0.0001
 No recurrence 69.9 (5.3121)   
 Recurrence 30.4 (1.0116)   
  1. Abbreviations: ccRCC clear cell renal cell carcinoma, G histopathological grading according to Fuhrman, pT pathological tumor classification, R surgical margin classification
  2. aImaging techniques was used to provide evidence of presence/non-presence of metastases before surgery
  3. b p value from Fisher’s exact test or Chi-square test for trend and Mann–Whitney U-test
  4. cIn four cases, only the survival but not the recurrence situation could be assessed