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Table 2 Receiver-characteristic curve analyses of piRNAs to discriminate between non-malignant vs. malignant tissue and non-metastatic vs. metastatic primary tumor tissue

From: Piwi-interacting RNAs as novel prognostic markers in clear cell renal cell carcinomas

piRNA AUC (95 % CI) P value different to AUC = 0.5 Differentiating ability at the Youden indexa Overall correct classification (%)
    Sensitivity (95 % CI) Specificity (95 % CI)  
Non-malignant/malignant tissue
piR-30924 0.61 (0.530.70) 0.008 75 (65–83) 47 (35–59) 57.3
piR-57125 0.87 (0.810.92) <0.0001 90 (82–95) 79 (69–88) 83.6
piR-38756 0.71 (0.640.78) <0.0001 43 (33–52) 95 (87–99) 58.5
All piRNAs combinedb 0.91 (0.860.95) <0.0001 91 (83–95) 86 (76–93) 85.8
Non-metastatic/metastatic
piR-30924 0.63 (0.540.73) 0.028 30 (15–49) 93 (85–98) 71.7
piR-57125 0.68 (0.580.77) 0.004 40 (23–59) 92 (84–97) 71.7
piR-38756 0.64 (0.540.73) 0.013 77 (58–90) 61 (49–72) 71.7
All piRNAs combinedb 0.76 (0.670.84) <0.0001 73 (54–88) 74 (62–83) 75.5
piR-30924 + piR-57125c 0.76 (0.670.84) <0.0001 73 (54–88) 74 (62–83) 75.5
  1. Abbreviations: AUC area under the receiver-operating curve, CI confidence interval
  2. aThe Youden index as a measure of overall diagnostic effectiveness is calculated by (sensitivity + specificity) - 1. When equal weight is given to sensitivity and specificity of a test, the cutoff at the maximum value of this index, which graphically corresponds to the maximum vertical distance between the ROC curve and the diagonal line, is referred to as optimal criterion
  3. bCalculated by full binary logistic regression
  4. cCalculated by stepwise binary logistic regression with all three miRNAs (backward likelihood elimination; entry p = 0.05, removal p = 0.10). In case of the differentiation between non-malignant and malignant tissue, the backward elimination did not result in a reduced model