Skip to main content

Table 1 The effects of metformin on the development of MNU-induced rat orthotopic bladder tumors

From: Metformin can block precancerous progression to invasive tumors of bladder through inhibiting STAT3-mediated signaling pathways

Macroscopy & microscopy Control (n = 8) MNU (n = 8) MNU + Met (n = 8) P value
Frequency of tumoringenivity [%(n/n)] 0 100(8/8) 87.5(7/8) 0.5
Areas of tumors [mm2(n)] 0 48.84 ± 17.82(in 8) 17.5 ± 10.88(in 7) 0.0014
Preneoplasic lesions[%(n/n)]     
Hyperplasia 0 0 0 1
Dysplasia 0 0 12.5(1/8) 0.302
Neoplasic lesions[%n/n]     
Papillary tumor 0 37.5(3/8) 75(6/8) 0.046
Carcinoma in situ 0 75(6/8) 37.5(3/8) 0.046
Infiltrative tumor 0 50(4/8) 0 0.021
Accompanied other pathology [%(n/n)]     
Squamous differentiation 0 37.5(3/8) 12.5(1/8) 0.248
Sarcoma 0 12.5(1/8) 0 0.302
  1. P values represent comparion between MNU group and Met group
  2. Note: Multiple lesions at various stages were detected in the same bladders of MNU-induced rats, including papillary tumors, CIS, infiltrative tumors and sarcomas. Upon treatment with metformin, MNU-induced rats were only detected with dysplasia, papillary tumors and CIS. Tumor incidence and tumor size (areas) in MNU-induced rats were reduced upon treatment with metformin