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Table 1 Typical examples of conventional drugs as anti-tumor agents

From: Metabolic reprogramming: the emerging concept and associated therapeutic strategies

Name of agent Conventional application Mechanism of action Clinical significance Target
Sulfasalazine Rheumatic arthritis, ulcerative colitis Specific inhibition of xCT cystine transporter Disruption of reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesis and to make cancer cells suscptible to oxidative stress Gastric tumor and NSCLC progression, breast cancer metastasis
Itraconazole Fungal infections such as Aspergillus Inhibition of Smoothened (Smo), active Shh receptor To inhibit proliferation of secondary mutated Shh signal (e.g. Gli2 amplification) Difficult-to-cure medulloblastoma
Terfenadine Auto-immune disorders such as allergic dermatitis Histamine receptor H1 antagonist To prevent secretion of VEGF from mast cells localized in hypoxic lesion, and to induce ROS-mediated apoptosis and autophagy of melanoma cells Malignant melanoma
Simvastatin Hyperlipidemia Specific inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase To prevent mutant p53 from activating mevalonate pathway for cholesterol synthesis Breast tumor, ovarian cancer