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Table 2 Main deregulated microRNAs/targets, and the biological roles in immune- and cancer-related pathways in solid tumors

From: Targeting microRNAs as key modulators of tumor immune response

Cancer type miRNA Expression status and cell localizationb Target Immune-related role Cancer-related role Refc
Breast ↑miR-10b Cancer cells ↓MICB Suppression of NK-mediated killing of tumor cells Metastasis developmentd [107]
  ↑miR-19a-3p M2 Macrophages ↓FRA-1 Macrophage polarization Inhibition of cancer progression and metastasis development [95]
  ↑miR-21 Cancer cells ↓PIAS3 Reduced chemokine production and lymphocyte migration, immunoresistance to cancer immunotherapyd Cancer cell survival, cell proliferation [137]
Macrophages ↑A20
M2 Macrophage polarization Xenograft tumor growth [97]
  ↓miR-126/126a Cancer cells ↑SDF-1α Downregulation of Ccl2 expression, Suppression of Inflammatory monocyte recruitment Repression of MSC recruitment, lung metastasis promotion [100]
  ↓miR-146a Cancer cells ↑IRAK1 ↑TRAF6 Modulation of inflammationc Cell Invasion and Migration impairment (NF-kB signaling block) [92]
  ↑miR-155 Cancer cells ↓SOCS1 STAT3 signaling activation Cancer cell proliferation, colony formation, and xenograft tumor growth [141]
   Myeloid cells ↓SHIP1 Tumor-infiltrating innate immune cell recruitment Antitumor activity [98]
  ↑miR-223a M2 macrophages and cancer cells ↓MEF2Cd Macrophage differentiationd Promotion of cancer cell invasion [163]
  ↑miR-494 MDSCs ↓PTEN Accumulation of MDSCs Tumor cell invasion and metastasis development [117]
Gastric ↓miR-146a Cancer cells ↑IRAK1 ↑TRAF6
Modulation of inflammationd Antitumor activity [146]
Ovarian ↑miR-20a Cancer cells ↓MICA/B Suppression of NK-mediated killing of tumor cells Long-term cellular proliferation, invasion capabilities [104]
  ↓miR-199a Cancer cells ↑IKKβ Cytokine production Tumor progression, chemosensitivity (NF-kB signaling modulation) [148]
  ↑miR-424 Cancer cells ↓PDL1
T cell activation Chemosensitivity [151]
Colorectal ↓miR-17-5p/miR-20a/miR-124 MDSCs ↑STAT3 Inhibition of immunosuppressive potential of MDSCs Tumor growth [142144]
  ↑miR-21/miR-29ba Cancer cells and immune cells ↑IL-6 (Indirectly) Activation of pro inflammatory immune cellsd Promotion of cancer cell invasion, tumor progressiond [164]
Hepatocellular ↑miR-20a, miR-96, miR-106b Cancer cells ↓MICA Suppression of NK-mediated killing of tumor cells Long-term cellular proliferation, invasion capabilitiesd [108]
HBV+/Hepatocellular ↓miR-34a Cancer cells ↑CCL2 Regulation of Treg recruitment Suppression of tumor growth/metastasis development [113]
Melanoma ↓miR-34a/c Cancer cells ↑ULPB2 Suppression of NK-mediated killing of tumor cells Cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis [111112]
  ↓miR-17 T cells ↑STAT3 Impairment of T cell responsed Tumor growthd [142]
Melanoma and Lewis lung cancer ↓miR-155 Immune cells ↑HIF1a Recruitment of MDSC cells to tumor microenvironment Promotion of tumor growthd [118]
Lung ↑miR-23a T cells ↓BLIMP1 Suppression of CD8+ T cell functiond Tumor progression, TGF-β-mediated immune evasiond [145]
Glioma ↓miR-124 T cells ↑STAT3 Impairment of T cell responses Tumor growth [143]
Various solid tumors ↓miR-29 Cancer cells ↑B7-H3 Inhibition of NK and T cell functiond Protumor activityd [114115]
  ↓miR-214a Cancer cells and CD4+CD25+ T cells ↓PTEN Expansion of Treg cells Promotion of tumor growth [166]
  1. a Detailed mechanism involving microvesicles-cell interactions (see also subsection “MicroRNAs and cell-to-cell communication”)
  2. b These data are referred to studies in either tissue samples or in vitro/in vivo models
  3. c Reference number listed in bibliography
  4. d Further investigation is needed
  5. Upregulation of miRNA or miRNA target. Downregulation of miRNA or miRNA target
  6. HBV, Hepatitis B Virus; MDSCs, Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells; NKs, Natural Killer cells; TAMs, Tumor Associated Macrophages