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Table 1 Roles of β-arrestins in human cancers

From: β-arrestin1 at the cross-road of endothelin-1 signaling in cancer

β-arr isoform Tumor type Role in cancer References
β-arr1/β-arr2 Ovarian cancer Chemoresistance, angiogenesis, migration, invasion, metastasis [11, 15, 28, 29, 56, 5861]
β-arr1 Lung cancer Cell growth, migration, metastasis, stemness, angiogenesis Poor prognosis [4042, 54, 55, 6266]
β-arr1/β-arr2 Prostate cancer Cell viability and proliferation, chemoresistance, migration, metabolic alteration
Regulator of androgen receptor expression
[32, 46, 48, 53, 6668]
β-arr1 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cell growth, stemness
Poor prognosis
[45, 69]
β-arr1/β-arr2 Chronic myeloid leukaemia Cell growth, stemness
Poor prognosis
[44, 70, 71]
β-arr1/β-arr2 Colorectal cancer Cell growth, apoptosis, migration, invasion and metastasis [33, 7275]
β-arr1 Gastric cancer Cell proliferation
Poor prognosis
[34, 76]
β-arr1 Osteosarcoma Proliferation and invasion [77]
β-arr1/β-arr2 Breast cancer Cell proliferation, migration and invasion and metastsis
Multidrug resistance
[31, 36, 47, 50, 57, 7886]
β-arr1 Neuroblastoma Metastasis [87]
β-arr1 Ewing's sarcoma Drug resistance [88]
β-arr1 Melanoma Angiogenesis [89]
β-arr2 Pancreatic cancer Cell proliferation [90]