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Fig. 5 | Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research

Fig. 5

From: Sulfasalazine attenuates evading anticancer response of CD133-positive hepatocellular carcinoma cells

Fig. 5

Sulfasalazine (SASP), an inhibitor of xCT, overcomes chemoresistance to anti-cancer therapies in CD133-positive HCC but not in CD133-negative HCC. a, b ROS accumulation and reduced glutathione were measured by treating with the indicated concentrations of (a) buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), and (b) sulfasalazine (SASP) for 24 h in CD133-negative and CD133-positive HCC. After treatment, levels of ROS and GSH were examined using the HCS System via staining with CM-H2DCFDA and ThiolTracker™ Violet. c CD133-negative and CD133-positive HCC were pretreated with SASP or BSO before being treated with 200 μM H2O2 for 24 h. After treatment, levels of ROS was examined using the HCS System. d Dose response curve of CD133-negative and CD133-positive HCC cells, constructed from the results of pretreatment with 200 μM SASP for 24 h before cisplatin, MTX, and sorafenib treatment with indicated concentration for further 48 h. After 48 h of drug treatment, the nucleus was stained with Hoechst33342 and counted (upper panel). e LCSC spheroids were formed and treated with doxorubicin, cisplatin for 6 days with or without pretreatment with 200 μM SASP. The size of LCSCs was detected with bright field microscopy with a 10 × objective (scale bar: 100 μm). f Human primary HCC cells were treated with anti-cancer drugs (cisplatin, doxorubicin) for 48 h, with or without pretreatment with 200 μM SASP for 24 h. Nuclei were stained with Hoechst33342 and examined using the HCS System. All data are mean values ± SD from two independent experiments. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.005

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