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Table 2 Curcumin mediated inhibition of breast cancer spread and angiogenesis

From: Curcumin: the spicy modulator of breast carcinogenesis

Effect Curcumin alone or in combination Model used (*cell line/**animal) Expression phenotype of cancer cell Solubilization of curcumin Mechanism Reference
Inhibition of invasion and metastasis Curcumin *MDA-MB-231
**Intercardiac injection of MDA-MB-231 cells in immunodeficient mice
ER PR Her2 NaOH solution Inhibits expression & activity of AP-1 & NFκB leading to diminished expression and activity of several MMPs; diminished IκB and p65 phosphorylation and reduced activation of the survival pathway NFκB significantly reduces the number of metastases. [77]
Curcumin **MDA-MB-231 cells injected into the mammary fat pad of nude mice ER PR Her2 NaOH solution prometastatic cytokines, CXCL1 & -2, which regulate the expression of CXCR4, the receptor for SDF1/CXCL12; [78]
Curcumin *MCF-7 & MDA-MB-231 ER+ PR+ Her2
ER PR Her2
Description not available ER-positive cancer: inhibits the expression of ER downstream genes including pS2 and TGF-beta and this inhibition is also dependent on the presence of estrogen
ER negative cancer: reduced transcript levels of VEGF and b-FGF;b downregulated MMP-2 & upregulated TIMP-1
Curcumin *MDA-MB-435/β4 & MDA-MB-231 ER PR Her2 Description not available Reduced basal phosphorylation of beta(4) integrin; blocked alpha(6)beta(4)-dependent Akt activation and expression of cell motility-promoting factor ENPP2 (Ectonucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase 2). [79]
Curcumin *MCF-7 ER+ PR+ Her2 NaOH solution Upregulated maspin expression with upregulation of p53 & downregulation of Bcl-2. [81]
Curcumin *MCF-7 ER+ PR+ Her2 Description not available Concentration-dependent down regulation of RhoA and ROCK activities and expression of RhoA, ROCK1, ROCK2, MMP2 and MMP9; attenuation of RhoA/ROCK/MMPs pathway. [82]
Curcumin *Patient-derived primary breast CAF cells (bCAFs)   DMSO Inactivated the JAK2/STAT3 pathway; upregulated p16INK4A & other tumor suppressor proteins; reduced the level of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA); suppressed the expression/secretion of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-9, and TGF-β, which impeded their paracrine procarcinogenic potential; down-regulation of downstream targets c-Myc & survivin [74]
Curcumin *MCF-7 ER+ PR+ Her2 Description not available Inhibition of PKCα-dependent MMP-expression, down- regulation of NF-κB and reduction of AP-1 activation; strongly repressed the TPA-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and inhibited TPA-induced translocation of PKCα from the cytosol to the membrane. [83]
Curcumin *MCF-7 ER+ PR+ Her2 DMSO Decreased the expression of uPA and NF-κB DNA binding activity, [84]
Curcumin *MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 & MCF-7 ER PR Her2 (basal A and B) ER+ PR+ Her2 Description not available Down-regulates visfatin gene expression; decreased activity of constitutive NF-κB signalling. [87]
Curcumin *MCF-7 & MDA-MB-231 ER+ PR+ Her2
ER PR Her2
Description not available Down-regulation of LPS-induced markers of EMT such as vimentin via downregulation of NF-κB-Snail activity; upregulation of expression of E-cadherin [95]
Inhibition of tumour angiogenesis Curcumin **MDA.MB231 xenograft model in Female Foxn1nu/nu mice ER PR Her2 Description not available Inhibits activation of NF-κB pathway with significant reductions in the expression of PECAM-1, cyclin D1, and p65; [88]
Curcumin *MDA-MB-231 ER PR Her2 Description not available Inhibits OPN-induced VEGF expression by suppressing the binding activities of NF-κB & ATF-4. [91]