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Table 2 Correlation Between Kindlin-2 Expression and Clinicopathological Characteristics of HCC in Cohort 1 and Cohort 2

From: Kindlin-2 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma invasion and metastasis by increasing Wnt/β-catenin signaling

Clinicopathological variables Cohort 1 Cohort 2
  n Kindlin-2 expression** χ 2 P value n Kindlin-2 expression** χ 2 P value
   High(103) Low(24)     High(31) Low(19)   
Sex
 Female 17 13 4    8 5 3   
 Male 110 90 20 0.273 0.602 42 26 16 0.001 0.975
Age, years
 ≤ 60 111 88 23    36 23 13   
 >60 16 15 1 1.896 0.169 14 8 6 0.191 0.662
Serum AFP, ng/ml
 ≤ 252 51 40 11    18 10 8   
 >252 76 63 13 0.394 0.530 32 21 11 0.486 0.486
HbsAg
 Negative 14 12 2    8 4 4   
 Positive 113 91 22 0.217 0.642 42 27 15 0.570 0.450
Liver cirrhosis
 Absence 23 19 4    14 10 4   
 Presence 104 84 20 0.041 0.839 36 21 15 0.719 0.396
Tumor number
 Single 106 89 17    46 29 17   
 Multiple 21 14 7 3.394 0.065 4 2 2 0.260 0.610
Maximal tumor size, cm
 ≤ 3 10 6 4    7 3 4   
 >3 117 97 20 3.129 0.077 43 28 15 0.399 0.528
Edmondson-Steiner grade
 I & II 11 10 1    19 11 8   
 III & IV 116 93 23 0.750 0.387 31 20 11 0.215 0.643
Tumor encapsulation
 Absence 40 33 7    33 17 16   
 Presence 87 70 17 0.074 0.786 17 14 3 4.438 0.035
Microvascular invasion
 Absence 66 49 17    21 9 12   
 Presence 61 54 7 4.186 0.041 29 22 7 5.519 0.019
Metastasis*
 Absense 9 4 5    12 3 9   
 Intrahepatic presence 64 50 14 4.585 0.032 17 9 8 2.186 0.139
 Extrahepatic Presence 51 47 4 4.196 0.041 21 19 2 6.646 0.010
  1. *Three patients’ metastatic status is uncertain in cohort 1 due to their rejection to the imaging examination. ** Cases with IHC staining total score, which was obtained through intensity score multiplying by proportion score, of 4–12 were defined as Kindlin-2 high expression and those with total score of 0–3 as Kindlin-2 low expression
  2. All entries in boldface have significance (P < 0.05)