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Table 2 Pre-clinical studies with immune checkpoints in therapy of liver cancers

From: Immune checkpoint therapy in liver cancer

Cancer type Number TNM Stage (I + II / III + IV) Tumor differentiation (I + II / III + IV) Tumor size (cm) Immune checkpoints Therapy Target cells Year Reference
Human HCC 71 57 / 14 58 / 13 36 (≤5) / 35 (>5) PD-L1 and PD-1 PD-L1and PD-1 antibodies Kupffer cells and CD8+ T cells 2009 [23]
Human HCC NR NR NR NR PD-L1 Specific shRNA for PD-L1 and DNMT1 HCC cell lines 2017 [57]
Human HCC 31 22/9 21/10 9(≤5) /22(>5) CTLA-4 CTLA-4 antibodies Tumor-Associated Antigen-Specific T Cells 2011 [16]
Mice HCC NR NR NR NR CTLA-4 CTLA-4 antibodies Regulatory T cells 2017 [21]
Human HCC 59 54 / 4 unknown, n = 1 NR NR LAG3, PD-1, Tim3 and CTLA4 Blocking antibodies to LAG3, PD-1, TIM3 or CTLA4 tumor-infiltrating T cells 2017 [30]
Human HCC 21 8/13 NR NR GITR GITR ligand tumor-infiltrating Tregs 2013 [33]
  1. HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, ICC Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, NR not reported