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Table 2 Immune cells activities summary

From: Activities of stromal and immune cells in HPV-related cancers

Cell types Activities
Antigen Presentation Antigen response recall Phagocytosis Cytotoxicity Pro-inflammatory cytokine synthesis NK cell activation DC maturation Antigen-specific response Antibody-mediated cytotoxicity Inhibition of proliferation and cell growth Immunosuppressive activities
Keratinocyte + +   +   +  
Stromal cell   +   +
Macrophage +   +   +   +
Mast cell   +   +
MDSC   +   +
Neutrophil   + + +
Dendritic cell +   + +   +   +
Langerhans cell +   +   +  
NK cell +   + +   + + + +  
  1. Note. Immune cells have their functions altered by HPV infection, playing different roles from those usually performed. Macrophages, for example, can assume two phenotypes with opposite functions depending on HPV interference, M1 has proinflammatory and antitumor activities while, M2 is immunomodulatory, promoting tumor cell proliferation and migration, angiogenesis and differentiation to T-regulatory cells [23]