Skip to main content

Table 2 Candidate biomarkers for checkpoint blockade immunotherapy in glioblastoma

From: Challenges and potential of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade immunotherapy for glioblastoma

Biomarkers N Population Express positivity on tumor cells Results Ref
PD-L1 135 Newly diagnosed glioblastoma (N = 117) 88.0% No association between PD-L1 positivity and OS [5]
   Recurrent glioblastoma (N = 18) 72.2%
PD-L1 94 glioblastoma 61.0% PD-L1 positivity associated with poor OS [6]
PD-L1 54 glioblastoma 31.5% PD-L1 positivity associated with worse OS [77]
TILs 135 glioblastoma Sparse-to-moderate in 72.6% No association between TILs and OS [5]
MMR deficiency 2 Recurrent glioblastoma high neoantigen loads
(> 20,000 mutations)
Nivolumab monoclonal antibody has significant clinical response [78]
POLE deficiency 1 glioblastoma high neoantigen loads Pembrolizumab monoclonal antibody has objective radiographic response and lymphocyte infiltration [79]
EGFRvIII 196 glioblastoma 31% In subset of OS≥1 year, EGFRvIII positivity associated with poor OS [86]