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Table 2 MiRNAs from CSF as brain tumor biomarkers

From: MicroRNA based theranostics for brain cancer: basic principles

miRNA ↑/↓ Study, Year, Ref. Biological fluid and Analysis method No. of pts. Significance Area under the Curve (AUC) SS/SP
miR-21
miR-10b
miR-200


Teplyuk, 2012 [127] CSF
qRT-PCR
19 GBM
118 other non glioma – metastases, neurologic conditions
miR-21
Increased in patients with GBM, brain metastases from breast and lung cancer compared to healthy controls
Does not distinguish between primary glioma and brain metastases
miR-10b
Absent in controls
Present in GBM, and brain metastases
miR-200
Not present in normal brain tissue
Very low levels in glioma
High levels in other solid cancers
Its presence in CSF distinguishes between glioma and brain metastases
Quantification of 7 miRNA in CSF distinguishes between GBM and brain metastasis
N/A
miR-21 Akers, 2013 [126] CSF
qRT-PCR
13 GBM
14 Non-cancer controls
24 GBM
5 Non-cancer controls
Distinguishes between GBM and non-oncologic controls AUC = 0.91
SS = 87%
SP = 93%
miR-21
miR-15b

Baraniskin, 2012 [125] CSF
qRT-PCR
10 Glioma
10 Neurologic diseased patients
23 PCNSL
7 Brain metastases
miR-21
Elevated in all glioma, PCNSL, metastases compared to non-neoplastic controls
Lower CSF levels in glioma, compared to metastases and PCNSL
miR-15b
Elevated CSF levels in glioma compared to control, metastasis and PCNSL
Distinguishes between glioma and non-glioma patients
miR-21 = N/A
miR-15b: Glioma vs healthy controls
AUC = 0.96
SS = 90%
SP = 94%
miR-451
miR-711
miR-935
miR-223
miR-125b

↑/↓


Drusco, 2015 [129] CSF
Nano-String
qRT-PCR
9 Glioma
2 Ependimoma
4 Meningioma
4 Glioblastoma
3 Medulloblastoma
4 Lung cancer metastasis
5 BC9 metastasis
3 Lymhoma
14 Healthy Controls
Differential expression of aforementioned miRNAs
Levels could distinguish between cancer patients and healthy controls
N/A
miR-21-5p
miR-218-5p
miR-193b-3p
miR-331-3p
miR-374a-5p
miR-548c-3p
miR-520f-3p
miR-27b-3p
miR-130b-3p








Akers, 2017
[128]
CSF
TaqMan OpenArray Real-Time PCR System
Cohort 4 – Cisternal CSF
10 GBM
12 Controls
Cohort 5 – Lumbar CSF
18 GBM
20 Controls
MiRNA signature distinguishes GBM from healthy controls in cisternal and lumbar CSF specimens
Lumbar CSF has low sensitivity
Cohort 4 – Cisternal CSF
AUC = 0.75 (95% CI 0.53, 0.97)
SS = 80%;
SP = 67%
Cohort 5 – Lumbar CSF
AUC = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.96).
SS = 28%;
SP = 95%.
  1. 1HGG High grade glioma, 2LGG Low-grade glioma, 3PCNSL Primary central nervous system lymphoma, 4GBM Glioblastoma, 5KPS Karnofsky Performance Scale, 6OS Overall Survival, 7PFS Progression free survival, 8DLGG diffuse large grade glioma, BC breast cancer