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Table 2 MiRNAs from CSF as brain tumor biomarkers

From: MicroRNA based theranostics for brain cancer: basic principles

miRNA ↑/↓ Study, Year, Ref. Biological fluid and Analysis method No. of pts. Significance Area under the Curve (AUC) SS/SP
miR-21 miR-10b miR-200 ↑ ↑ ↑ Teplyuk, 2012 [127] CSF qRT-PCR 19 GBM 118 other non glioma – metastases, neurologic conditions miR-21 Increased in patients with GBM, brain metastases from breast and lung cancer compared to healthy controls Does not distinguish between primary glioma and brain metastases miR-10b Absent in controls Present in GBM, and brain metastases miR-200 Not present in normal brain tissue Very low levels in glioma High levels in other solid cancers Its presence in CSF distinguishes between glioma and brain metastases Quantification of 7 miRNA in CSF distinguishes between GBM and brain metastasis N/A
miR-21 Akers, 2013 [126] CSF qRT-PCR 13 GBM 14 Non-cancer controls 24 GBM 5 Non-cancer controls Distinguishes between GBM and non-oncologic controls AUC = 0.91 SS = 87% SP = 93%
miR-21 miR-15b ↑ ↑ Baraniskin, 2012 [125] CSF qRT-PCR 10 Glioma 10 Neurologic diseased patients 23 PCNSL 7 Brain metastases miR-21 Elevated in all glioma, PCNSL, metastases compared to non-neoplastic controls Lower CSF levels in glioma, compared to metastases and PCNSL miR-15b Elevated CSF levels in glioma compared to control, metastasis and PCNSL Distinguishes between glioma and non-glioma patients miR-21 = N/A miR-15b: Glioma vs healthy controls AUC = 0.96 SS = 90% SP = 94%
miR-451 miR-711 miR-935 miR-223 miR-125b ↑ ↑/↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ Drusco, 2015 [129] CSF Nano-String qRT-PCR 9 Glioma 2 Ependimoma 4 Meningioma 4 Glioblastoma 3 Medulloblastoma 4 Lung cancer metastasis 5 BC9 metastasis 3 Lymhoma 14 Healthy Controls Differential expression of aforementioned miRNAs Levels could distinguish between cancer patients and healthy controls N/A
miR-21-5p miR-218-5p miR-193b-3p miR-331-3p miR-374a-5p miR-548c-3p miR-520f-3p miR-27b-3p miR-130b-3p ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ Akers, 2017 [128] CSF TaqMan OpenArray Real-Time PCR System Cohort 4 – Cisternal CSF 10 GBM 12 Controls Cohort 5 – Lumbar CSF 18 GBM 20 Controls MiRNA signature distinguishes GBM from healthy controls in cisternal and lumbar CSF specimens Lumbar CSF has low sensitivity Cohort 4 – Cisternal CSF AUC = 0.75 (95% CI 0.53, 0.97) SS = 80%; SP = 67% Cohort 5 – Lumbar CSF AUC = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.96). SS = 28%; SP = 95%.
  1. 1HGG High grade glioma, 2LGG Low-grade glioma, 3PCNSL Primary central nervous system lymphoma, 4GBM Glioblastoma, 5KPS Karnofsky Performance Scale, 6OS Overall Survival, 7PFS Progression free survival, 8DLGG diffuse large grade glioma, BC breast cancer