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Table 1 Overview of in vivo studies of the effect of STF on the toxicity and/or efficacy of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors

From: Effects of short-term fasting on cancer treatment

Author Strain Treatment Outcomes of STF
Raffaghello et al. 2008 [19] A/J, CD-1, nude mice and A/J mice bearing subcutaneous NXS2 neuroblastoma High dose etoposide ± 48–60 h STF Decreased mortality (toxicity) after high dose etoposide
Lee et al. 2012 [12] BALB/c, C57BL/6 and nude mice bearing subcutaneous: ±48–60 h STF and:  
4 T1 breast cancer Cyclophosphamide Increased efficacy of CT,
STF alone was as effective as CT alone, Increased survival
B16 melanoma Doxorubicin Increased efficacy of CT, Increased survival, Decreased metastasis
GL26 glioma Doxorubicin Increased efficacy of CT
STF alone was as effective as CT alone
ACN human neuroblastoma Doxorubicin Increased efficacy of CT
MDAMB-231 breast cancer Doxorubicin Increased efficacy of CT
OVCAR3 ovarian cancer Doxorubicin Increased efficacy of CT
NXS2 neuroblastoma Only STF STF alone was effective, Increased survival
Safdie et al. 2012 [13] C57BL/6 N mice bearing subcutaneous or intracranial GL26 glioma Temozolomide ± 48 h STF Increased efficacy of CT, STF alone was as effective as CT alone
(subcutaneous model only)
Radiotherapy ±
48 h STF
Increased efficacy of radiotherapy
Shi et al. 2012 [37] CD-1 Nude mice bearing subcutaneous ZL55 mesothelioma and A549 lung carcinoma Cisplatin ±48 h STF Increased efficacy of CT, STF alone was more effective as CT alone (mesothelioma only)
Kawaguchi et al. 2012 [62] GFP-LC3 mice Doxorubicin ±48 h STF Decreased cardiotoxicity after high dose doxorubicin.
Brandhorst et al. 2013 [18] AIN93G mice High dose doxorubicin ±60 h STF Decreased mortality (toxicity) after high dose doxorubicin.
Saleh et al. 2013 [38] BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous 67NR or NIH3 triple negative breast cancer Radiotherapy ±
24 h STF (alternate)
Increased efficacy of radiotherapy
Cheng et al. 2014 [22] C57BL/6 J mice Cyclophosphamide ±
48 h STF
Decreased mortality (toxicity) after high dose cyclophosphamide.
Bianchi et al. 2015 [14] BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous CT26 colon cancer Oxaliplatin ± 48 h STF Increased efficacy of CT
Shim et al. 2015 [15] C57BL/6 J mice bearing subcutaneous B16 melanoma Doxorubicin or Cyclophosphamide ± 48 h STF Increased efficacy of CT STF alone was as effective as CT alone
D’Aronzo et al. 2015 [36] Nu/Nu mice bearing subcutaneous BxPC-3-luc pancreatic cancer Gemcitabine ± 24 h STF Increased efficacy of CT
Huisman et al. 2015 [20] FabplCre;Apc15lox/C mice bearing spontaneous intestinal malignancies Irinotecan ± 48 h STF Decreased toxicity to CT
No effect on efficacy of CT
Tinkum et al. 2015 [21] B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2 J/J,
Bmi1CreERT/+;Rosa26R/+ HopXCreERT/+;Rosa26R/+
Lgr5EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/+;Rosa26R/+,
Lgr5EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/+ mice
High dose etoposide ± 24 h STF Decreased mortality (toxicity) after high dose etoposide
Caffa et al. 2015 [39] BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous H3122 lung cancer or HCT116 colorectal cancer Crizotinib/regorafinib ± 48 h STF Increased efficacy of crizotinib/regorafinib
Huisman et al. 2015 [23] BALB/c mice bearing subcutaneous C26 colon cancer Irinotecan ± 72 h STF Decreased toxicity to CT
No effect on efficacy of CT
Di Biase et al. 2016 [16] BALB/c, BALB/c-nude and C57BL/6 mice bearing subcutaneous MCF7 and 4T1 breast cancer, B16 melanoma Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide ±48 h STF or 96 h FMD Increased efficacy of CT
Pietrocola et al. 2016 [40] Wild-type C57BL/6 and athymic (nu/nu) mice Mitoxantrone or oxaliplatin ± 48 h STF Increased efficacy of CT
Di Biase et al. 2017 [17] C57BL/6 mice Doxorubicin ±24–72 h STF Decreased cardiotoxicity after high dose doxorubicin.
Jongbloed et al. 2019 [24] BALB/c mice Irinotecan ± 72 h STF Decreased toxicity to CT
Authors, site Subjects Treatment Outcome of STF
Withers et al. 2014, UC Davis, USA [63] 20 dogs with lymphoma Doxorubicin ±24 h STF Safe and feasible
Reduction in vomiting
No reduction in IGF-1
  1. STF Short-term fasting, CT Chemotherapy, FMD Fasting mimicking diet