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Fig. 1 | Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research

Fig. 1

From: Anti-EMT properties of CoQ0 attributed to PI3K/AKT/NFKB/MMP-9 signaling pathway through ROS-mediated apoptosis

Fig. 1

CoQ0 inhibits proliferation, cell migration and invasion in human breast cancer cells. a Structure of CoQ0. b Human tumorigenic breast cancer cell lines TNBC, MDA-MB-231, and non-tumorigenic line MCF-10A were treated with CoQ0 (2.5–20 μM) or vehicle control (0.1% DMSO) for 24 h. MTT colorimetric assay was used to determine cell viability. c-f CoQ0 inhibits migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cells MDA-MB-231 were treated with corresponding concentration of CoQ0 for 24 h. c-d Cells were scratched, and migration was observed by an optical microscope (200 × magnification). The area closure was calculated by commercially available software. e-f Invasiveness was determined by counting per sample three microscopic fields. The inhibitory percentage of invading cells was quantified and expressed with untreated cells (control) representing 100%. g-h CoQ0 modulates metastatic-related proteins of MDA-MB-231 cells. Cells were treated with CoQ0 (0.5, 1, or 2 μM) for 24 or 4 h. CoQ0 mediated downregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, uPA, uPAR, and VEGF expression, and up-regulation of their endogenous inhibitors TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and PAI-1, as measured by Western blot (24 h) (g) or RT-PCR (4 h) (h) analyses. The results are presented as the mean ± SD of three independent assays **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001 significant compared to control cells

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