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Table 2 Novel treatment options that are associated with HGF/MET signaling pathway in glioblastoma

From: MET in glioma: signaling pathways and targeted therapies

Agent Oral, Intravenous Molecular type Mechanisms of Action Animal model (Subcutaneous, Intracranial) Clinical trail Ref.
YYB-101 Intravenous A humanized monoclonal anti-HGF antibody Neutralize HGF Intracranial NCT02499224 (Phase I) [79, 80]
Rilotumumab (AMG102) Intravenous A neutralizing antibody against HGF Neutralize HGF NCT01113398 (phase II) [82, 83]
Onartuzumab Intravenous A humanized monovalent monoclonal antibody Block c-Met receptor Intracranial (infused intratumorally using osmotic minipumps) NCT01632228 (phase II) [84, 85]
Crizotinib Oral A tyrosine kinase inhibitor Target ALK, ROS1, and MET NCT02270034 (phase I) NCT01644773 (phase I) [86, 87]
Volitinib Oral A kinase inhibitor Inhibit the phosphorylation of c-Met. Subcutaneous [88]
SGX523 Oral Small molecule kinase inhibitor Inhibite c-Met activation Intracranial NCT00607399 (phase I), NCT00606879 (phase I) [89]
INCB28060 Oral A novel inhibitor of c-MET kinase Inhibit c-MET enzyme activity Subcutaneous [75]
Cabozantinib (XL184) Oral A molecular kinase inhibitor Inhibit VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and MET. Intracranial NCT00704288 (phase II) [92,93,94]
Altiratinib Oral A kinase inhibitor Inhibit the activation of MET, TIE2, VEGFR2, and tropomyosin receptor kinase family kinases. Intracranial [95]
CM-118 Oral A novel lead compound Selectivity inhibit the phosphorylation of c-Met and ALK. Intracranial [96]
Brefelamide An aromatic amide that was originally isolated from Dictyostelium cellular slime molds. Inhibit the secretion of HGF and expression and activation of c-Met. [97]
PLB-1001 Oral A MET kinase inhibitor High selectively inhibit the activation of Met Subcutaneous and intracranial NCT02978261 (Phase I) [20]