Activation of Hh signaling pathway in primary cultured human PA cells and human PA samples. a Primary cultured human PA cells were treated with the Mβ-CD/CHO complex (20 μg/ml) or vismodegib (VIS, 50 μM) for 48 h. Cell proliferation in three groups (N, Mβ-CD/CHO and VIS) from different cases was assessed by a CCK-8 assay. b The mRNA expression levels of PKA, SUFU and GLI1 were assessed by qRT-PCR at 48 h in the above three groups from Case 1, 4, 6 and 7. c The expression of PKA, SUFU and GLI1 mRNA in human PA samples with low and high expression of SCP2 (SCP2-LE and SCP2-HE, respectively) and human pituitary gland RNA standard was assessed by qRT-PCR. d PKA, SUFU and GLI1 protein expression in human PA samples with SCP2-LE and SCP2-HE was assessed by IHC staining (left panels). Statistical analysis of the IHC staining (right panels). Scale bar, 50 μm. An unpaired t-test was used to assess statistical significance. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; #, not significant.