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Table 1 Summary of the characteristics of embryonic stem cells and cancer stem cells according to theirtranscription factors, markers, signaling pathways, RNA,and epigenetic regulators

From: Prevention of tumor risk associated with the reprogramming of human pluripotent stem cells

Stem cells ESC CSC
Features mESC hESC
Markers [17] • Oct 3/4 [17]
• Sox2 [17]
• Nanog [17]
• Klf4 [17]
• SSEA1 [16]
• Esrrb [39]
• Oct 3/4 [17]
• Sox2 [17]
• Nanog [17]
• Klf4 [17]
• c-Myc [17]
• SSEA3, 4, 5 [16]
• TRA-1-60 [16]
• TRA-1-81 [16]
• EpCAM (CD326) [17]
• Lgr5 [17]
• CD19 [17]
• CD24 [17]
• CD27 [17]
• CD38 [17]
• CD45 [17]
• CD49f [17]
• TNFRSF16 [17]
• CD133 [17]
• CD151 [17]
• ABCG2 [17]
• ALDH1A1 [17]
• CD13 [17]
• CD20 [17]
• CD26 [17]
• CD34 [17]
• CD44 [17]
• CD47 [17]
• CD66c [17]
• CD105 [17]
• CD117/c-Kit [17]
• CD166 [17]
Signal & Characteristics • LIF/Jak/Stat
(Self-renewal) [40]
   
  • Wnt/β-catenin (Self-renewal) [41] Wnt/β-catenin(self-renewal/Differentiation) [42] Wnt/β-catenin
• Brain [43]
• Colon [13]
• Prostate [44]
Wnt/β-catenin
• Breast [45]
• Lung [46]
• Head and Neck squamous cell carcinoma [47]
  • Hedgehog
(Self-renewal) [48]
• Hedgehog
(Differentiation) [49]
Hedgehog
• Brain [50]
• Pancreas [51]
Hedgehog
• Breast [52]
• Gastric cancer [53]
  • Notch
(Differentiation) [54]
• Notch
(Differentiation) [54]
Notch [55]
• Brain [56]
• Colon [57]
Notch
• Breast [58]
• Pancreas [59]
  • TGF-β/BMP/Smad (Activin/Nodal→ self-renewal)
(BMP → self-renewal) [60]
• TGF-β/BMP/Smad (Activin/Nodal→ self-renewal)
(BMP → differentiation) [61]
TGFβ/TβRII, Integrin/FAK
• Brain [62]
• Skin [63]
• Gastrointestinal [64]
TGFβ/TβRII, Integrin/FAK
• Breast [65]
• Colon [66]
  • FGF
(Differentiation) [67]
• FGF
(Self-renewal) [68]
FGF-FGFR
• Bladder [69]
• Breast [70]
FGF-FGFR
• Brain [71]
• Colon [72]
    PI3K/AkT/mTOR
• Neuroblastoma [73]
• Ovarian [74]
• Glioblastoma [75]
 
Related markers
• DNA methylation regulator
• Chromatin regulator
• DMNT1 (Differentiation) [76]
• TET2 (Differentiation) [77]
• EZH2
(Self-renewal& pluripotency) [78, 79]
• BMI-1
(Self-renewal& pluripotency) [80]
• Suz12
(Self-renewal & pluripotency) [78]
• MLL1 (Self-renewal & pluripotency) [78]
  DNMT1
• Colon [81]
TET2
• Breast [82]
EZH2
• Breast [83]
• Brain [84]
• Bone [85]
BMI-1
• Esophageal [94]
• Laryngeal [95]
• Salivary adenoid [96]
• Colon [97]
• Prostate [86]
• Head and neck [87]
• Colorectal [88]
• Lymphoma [89]
Suz12
• Breast [90]
MLL1
• Brain [91]
• Breast [92]
• Hematomalignancy [93]
• Pancreas [83]
• Colorectal cancer [88]
RNAs • Let7 and Lin 28 (Differentiation) [98, 99]
• Mir-31 (Differentiation) [100]
• Mir-145 (Differentiation) [101]
• Mir-200 family (Differentiation) [102]
• LncRNA-ROR
(Self-renewal) [103]
Let-7
• Breast [104]
Mir-200 family
• Breast [105]
Mir-34, Mir-34α
• Brain [106]
• Pancreatic [107]
• Colon [108]
Mir-145
• Brain [109]
LncRNA-ROR
• Liver [110]
• Prostate [111]
• Gastric [112]
Self-renewal Yes [113] Yes [113] Yes [113]  
DNA repair Yes [114] Yes [114] Altered by adaptation to environments, hypoxia condition and cell cycle [114,115,116,117]
Microenviromental protection by niche from noxious agents Yes [118] Yes [118] Yes [119, 120]
plasticity Affected by differentiation and dedifferentiation states [121] • Epithetical mesenchymal transition can self-renewal acquisition.
• Dedifferentiation and mutation accumulation in committed cells [122].
  1. This table is a modified version of the one published by Hadjimichael et al. [400]. CSC: cancer stem cells; ESCs: embryonic stem cells; mESCs Mouse ESCs, hESCs Human ESCs.