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Table 2 List of proteins tested as biomarkers of mucositis development and/or severity

From: Oral mucositis: the hidden side of cancer therapy

Biomarker Reference Treatment Disease Origin Levels during treatment Significant association with OM
TNF-α [123] RT HNC Saliva High No
  [124] RT HNC Cytologic smears from oral cavity High Association with OM development
  [125] RT, RT + CT HNC Serum Low No
  [126] RT, RT + CT HNC Serum Low No
IL-1 [125] RT, RT + CT HNC Serum No change No
  [126] RT, RT + CT HNC Serum No change No
IL-1β [124] RT HNC Cytologic smears from oral cavity High Association with OM development
IL-6 [123] RT HNC Saliva High Association with OM severity
  [125] RT, RT + CT HNC Serum High Association with OM severity
IL-8 [123] RT HNC Saliva High No
  [125] RT, RT + CT HNC Serum High No
IL-10 [123] RT HNC Saliva High Association with OM severity
  [125] RT, RT + CT HNC Serum No change No
TGF-β [127, 128] RT + CT HNC Plasma High Association with OM severity
EGF [2, 129, 130] RT HNC Saliva Low Association with OM development
  [131] RT HNC Saliva Low Association with OM development
CRP [132] RT HNC Blood High Association with OM severity
  [133] RT HNC Blood High Not assessed
  [134] RT, RT + CT HNC Blood High Not assessed
  [135] RT + CT HNC Blood High Association with OM severity only at initial week
ESR [132] RT HNC Blood High No
  [134] RT, RT + CT HNC Blood High Not assessed
  [135] RT + CT HNC Blood High No
GSH [136] RT Oral cavity cancer Plasma Measured before RT GSH baseline levels associate with OM development
  [137] RT HNC Plasma No change No
DNA DSB (γ-H2AX) [138] RT HNC Peripheral blood lymphocytes High Association with OM severity
  [139] RT, RT + CT HNC Peripheral blood lymphocytes High No