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Table 3 Possible immune-mediated mechanisms of HPD involving T cells

From: Mechanisms of hyperprogressive disease after immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy: what we (don’t) know

  1. Possible role of T lymphocytes in determining HPD. PD-1 blockade increases the expression of other immune checkpoint receptors on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or determines the upregulation of IL-10 receptor on CD8+ T cells, making these cells more sensitive to IL-10-mediated immune suppression. Moreover, blocking PD-1 on Tregs exacerbates their immunosuppressive properties, while anti-CTLA4 antibody promotes the proliferation of CD4+Foxp3-PD-1high T cells, lymphocytes with immunosuppressive properties