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Fig. 3 | Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research

Fig. 3

From: Dexosomes as a cell-free vaccine for cancer immunotherapy

Fig. 3

The good manufacturing practice of dexosome cancer immunotherapy. Advanced cancer patient is first subjected to leukapheresis. Following elutriation, monocytes are isolated in a cell therapy unit good manufacturing practice laboratory, and are then differentiated into immature dendritic cells (DCs) using GM-CSF and IL4, and may go through a quality control (QC) check as well. Afterwards, MHC I and II molecules incorporated with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are loaded onto DCs in the presence of IFNγ. TAA-loaded dexosomes are then produced and can be collected from culture supernatants. Each dexosome preparation is checked for immunological features (e.g., the content of tetraspanins, MHC II and costimulatory molecules) and immunostimulatory potential (e.g., the capacity to trigger a cognate T cell clone) before releasing of a certain batch. Released batches may subsequently be cryopreserved (at − 80 °C) for future administrations. Manufacturing of dexosome vaccines for cancer immunotherapy requires roughly three weeks following leukapheresis (this involves the time for in vitro cell culture steps, production and isolation of dexosomes, QC checks, and first-line therapy of the patient with metronomic cyclophosphamide)

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