Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of common preclinical models of PDAC

From: Preclinical models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: challenges and opportunities in the era of precision medicine

  Cell lines Organoids PDX GEMM
Intertumoral heterogeneity Between tumor cell lines (database available) Between sampled cases Between sampled cases
Intratumoral heterogeneity Depend on sampling region Depend on sampling region +++
Tumor-stroma interaction + (Co-culture) ++ (Co-culture) ++ +++
Consistency during passages + ++ +++ +++
Expansion +++ +++ ++ +
Genetic manipulation +++ +++ + (Before transplantation) ++
High throughput screening +++ + (Costly) + (Costly)
Success rate of initiation ++ ++ ++ +++
Cost $ $$ $$ $$$
Time 1 month or less 1–2 months More than 6 months More than 6 months
Other strengths Standardized across laboratories Cultured from diverse cells or tissue Mirror patient response to targeted therapy Model all stages of tumor progression
Other weaknesses Finite number of widely-available cell lines Lack high quality clinical trials Lack infiltrating immune cells, Loss of original stroma, Only represent resectable lesion Mouse genomic background different from human
  1. PDX patient-derived xenograft, GEMM genetically engineered mouse model
  2. +++ denotes good; ++, medium; +, limited; −, not suitable