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Fig. 2 | Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research

Fig. 2

From: Simvastatin re-sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to sorafenib by inhibiting HIF-1α/PPAR-γ/PKM2-mediated glycolysis

Fig. 2

The resistance to Sora was associated with enhanced aerobic glycolysis in vivo and in vitro. (a) Glycolysis levels in LM3 and LM3-SR cells were detected by lactate production and glucose uptake levels. Both the glucose uptake and lactate production levels were higher in LM3-SR cells when compared to LM3 cells, and Sora (15 μM) decreased these effects in LM3-SR cells. (b) Western blotting analysis of three key enzymes during glycolysis, the proliferation indicator PCNA, and apoptosis markers Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase 3 and cleaved PARP. (c) Xenograft tumor model exhibiting tumor volume induced by LM3 and LM3-SR cells. LM3-SR cells could induce larger tumor volume than LM3 cells, and Sora (10 mg/kg) was unable to suppress tumor volume in the LM3-SR group but did so in the LM3 group (n = 3). (d) H&E, TUNEL and Ki-67 staining of tumors. There was less necrosis (pink areas) and apoptosis (the nucleus was stained with dark-brown), but more tumor parenchyma and higher Ki-67 staining in the LM3-SR group. The data is represented as mean ± SD. * indicates p < 0.05 vs. LM3-CTRL group. # indicates p < 0.05 vs. LM3-SR-CTRL group

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