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Table 3 APA factors in cancer

From: Alternative polyadenylation: methods, mechanism, function, and role in cancer

Factor Subcellular location Function Biological Function Related major cancer types Ref.
CIRP Nucleoplasm Stabilizes transcripts of genes involved in cell survival and regulates the translational processing machinery. Stress response Renal cancer, endometrial cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, cervical cancer [63, 64, 154]
NUDT21 Nuclear bodies and additionally in the centriolar satellite Activates mRNA-processing by binding to 5′-UGUA-3′ elements located upstream of poly(A) signals and regulates gene expression in somatic cell fate through APA machinery. Differentiation, mRNA processing Liver cancer, bladder cancer, glioblastomas [9, 154,155,156]
PABPN1 Nucleoplasm and additionally in nuclear speckles Modulates the usage of poly(A) sites and controls the poly(A) tail length. mRNA processing Pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer [154, 157, 158]
hnRNPC Nucleoplasm Regulates the stability and translation level of mRNA. mRNA processing, mRNA splicing Ovarian cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer [154, 159,160,161,162,163,164,165]
RBBP6 Nuclear speckles Regulates DNA-replication and interacts with the p53/TP53-MDM2 complex as a scaffold. DNA damage, DNA replication, Ubl conjugation pathway Colorectal cancer, cervical carcinoma, myeloproliferative neoplasms [75, 103, 154]
CSTF2 Nucleoplasm and additionally in nuclear bodies Involved in the 3’end cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs. mRNA processing Liver cancer, renal cancer [92, 93, 154]
PCF11 Nucleoplasm and additionally in mitochondria Involved in the degradation of the 3′ product of poly(A) site cleavage and Pol II transcription termination mRNA processing Urothelial cancer, head and neck cancer [101, 154, 166, 167]
U1 snRNP Nucleoplasm Regulates the usage of poly(A) sites and controls the poly(A) tail length. Ribonucleoprotein, RNA-binding Pancreatic cancer, urothelial cancer, renal cancer [102, 154, 168]