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Table 2 Summary of crucial cellular components in breast cancer TME described in this review

From: Comprehensive description of the current breast cancer microenvironment advancements via single-cell analysis

Cell Types Classification Molecular markers Functions or prognostic values Study
Breast cancer cells All ERαHER2Survivinhigh Significantly correlated with resistance to neoadjuvant chemotherapy Wagner et al. [26]
TNBC “cluster 2” GLTP, SPTLC1, S1PR1, GPI/AMF, F11R, CCL20, CCL22 Significantly correlated with worse survival outcomes of the TNBC Karaayvaz et al. [30]
CAFs myCAF “cluster 0, 3, 4, 6, 7” Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins; TGFβ signaling pathway; wound healing; IFNαβ; acto-myosin pathway Significantly correlated with an immunosuppressive environment Kieffer et al. [51]
mCAF Glycoproteins (Dcn, Lum, and Vcan); structural proteins (Col14a1); matricellular proteins (Fbln1, Fbln2, and Smoc); Matrix-modifying enzymes (Lox and Loxl1); CXCL14; Fibulin-1; PDGFRα The relative number of mCAFs decreased during tumor progression Bartoschek et al. [43]
vCAF Notch3, Epas1, Col18a1, Nr2f2, Cspg4, Rgs5, Pdgfrb, Des, Cd248 An independent risk factor of distant metastasis Bartoschek et al. [43]
dPVL Perivascular markers including MCAM (CD146), CAV1, RGS5, MYH11, TAGLN (SM-22-Alpha); ACTA2 (⍺-SMA), PDGFRB, THY1 (CD90), S100A4 (FSP-1), ITGB1 (CD29) Strongly correlated with CTL exclusion; A potential biomarker for identifying patients suitable for vessel-targeted therapeutic strategies Wu et al. [58]
iCAF CXCL12, CD40, B7H3, DPP4, CD73, C5, IL6,TGFβ Strongly associated with CTL dysfunction and myeloid cells regulation Wu et al. [58]
Immune cells CD8 + T cells TRM ITGAE, CD103, GZMB, perforin (PRF1), HAVCR2 (TIM3), PDCD1 (PD1), CTLA4, TIGIT and LAG3; low expression of KLF2, SELL, S1PR1, S1PR5 and KLRG1; Associated with improved prognosis and longer OS in early-stage TNBC; A predictor of a better response to anti-PD-1 therapy Savas.et al. [73]
Myeloid cells TAM PD-L1+ CD64highHLA-DRhigh Associated with tumor aggression Wagner et al. [26]
B cell ICOSL+ Correlated with improved neoadjuvant chemotherapy effect; An independent positive prognostic factor for DFS and OS of breast cancer. Lu et al. [132]
  1. Abbreviations: TNBC triple negative breast cancer, dPVL differentiated perivascular-like, DFS disease-free survival, CAF Cancer-associated fibroblast, TRM Tissue-resident memory, TAM Tumor-associated macrophages, CTL Cytotoxic T lymphocytes