Growth arrest and DNA damage-induced 45a (GADD45α), GADD45β, GADD45γ gene expression in tumor tissue compared with adjacent normal tissue from the same esophageal squamous cancer patients. A, B and C, Relative expression of GADD45a, GADD45β, GADD45γ mRNA in tumor tissues from ESCC patients was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Results were normalized to the level of β-actin (loading control). D shows the different expression levels of GADD45α in various TNM stages. G. Protein levels of GADD45α in tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue from ESCC patients were assessed by immunohistochemistry. E shows the representative GADD45α-positive staining in tumor tissue from ESCC patients. GADD45α protein is mainly located in nucleolus of tumor cells. F. Negative control with less GADD45α staining in normal tissue. H Protein levels of GADD45α in tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue from ESCC patients were assessed by western blotting.