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Table 1 Laboratory Tests Used to Diagnose and Monitor PCa Biomarkers

From: Oxidative stress in prostate hyperplasia and carcinogenesis

Test Specimen Factors measured Method Reference
Oxidative stress Blood Activity changes of superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ceruloplasmin (Cp), tripeptide glutathione (GSH), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione-reductase (GR) Spectrophotometry [11, 12, 32]
Oxidative stress prostate tissue Thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1) Spectrophotometry [37]
Oxidative stress Tissue Inducible NOS (iNOS or NOS-2) Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [152]
Oxidative stress Blood Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, peroxides, and total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) Spectrophotometer [32]
Global oxidation Blood plasma fluorescent oxidation products Spectrophotometry [40]
Oxidative stress Blood carboxymethyllysine (CML), advanced glycation end products (AGE) Spectrophotometry [40]
Oxidative stress Prostatebiopsy (needle biopsy) Total thiol groups (TTG) level Spectrophotometry (2 thionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB)) [13, 153]
Lymphocyte DNA damage Blood lymphocyte DNA damage single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis, tail length migration [15]
Lipid peroxidation Plasma Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), serum protein carbonylation Spectrophotometry; Thiobarbituric acid (TBA), concentrations of TBA- MDA adduct [12, 36, 154]
Lipid oxidation Urine, blood, tissues F2-isoprostanes Gas/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry, immunological methods [40, 61, 155]
Body composition Air Volume of air the body displaced inside an enclosed chamber (plethysmograph) Air plethysmography (BOD POD) [13, 156]