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Table 1 Statin use in observational cross-sectional clinical studies

From: Statins: a repurposed drug to fight cancer

Cancer Statins Combination agent Population Findings Ref.
Breast cancers NR (Before the diagnosis) NR 7452 The use of statins was associated with increased overall mortality only in patients with ER-positive breast cancer [18]
NR (After the diagnosis) NR 17,880 Statin use after a diagnosis of breast cancer had reduced mortality due to breast cancer and all causes [19]
Lipophilic statins and hydrophilic statin NR 18,769 Simvastatin was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer recurrence among Danish women diagnosed with stage I–III breast carcinoma [20]
Lipophilic statins (After the diagnosis) NR 1945 The use of lipophilic statins was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer recurrence [21]
Prostate cancer NR (Before the diagnosis) NR 1022 The use of statins was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer [22]
Atorvastatin, simvastatin, flovastatin, pravastatin and rosuvastatin (Before the diagnosis) NR 44,126 The use of statins is associated with lower risk of PTEN-null and lethal prostate cancer [23]
Simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin NR 42,480 The use of statins was associated with a risk reduction overall (6%) and, specifically with advanced PCa (10%) [24]
NR NR 1367 The use of statins was not associated with the risk of advanced prostate cancer [25]
NR NR 1940 The use of statins was associated with the increased risk of prostate cancer [26]
Pancreatic cancer Atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin and pravastatin Gemcitabine/paclitaxel 797 The use of statins was associated with better survival in metastatic pancreatic cancer patients who were treated with first-line chemotherapy [27]
Atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin and pravastatin NR 2142 The use of statins was associated with lower mortality risk in patients with pancreatic cancer [28]
Gastric cancer NR NR 1835 Statin use may dose-dependently improve the OS of patients with GC after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy [29]
NR NR 80,271 The use of statins was associated with a reduction of gastric cancer mortality in the general population but not with gastric cancer incidence [30]
Colorectal cancer NR (After the diagnosis) NR 999 The use of statins was associated with reduced risk of death from any cause or from cancer [31]
NR NR 387,518 The use of statins was significantly associated with a decrease in overall mortality and cancer-specific mortality of CRC [32]
Ovarian cancer NR (After the diagnosis) NR 4419 The use of statins was not significantly associated with the reduction of mortality in patients with ovarian cancer [33]
Simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, pravastatin and rosuvastatin (After the diagnosis NR 1255 The use of statins was associated with a reduced risk of overall mortality [34]
Lung cancer Simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin (After the diagnosis) EGFR-TKIs 1707 Statins enhance the therapeutic effect and increase survival in patients with lung cancer receiving EGFR-TKI therapy [35]
NR (Before and after the diagnosis) NR 3638 The use of statins (particularly simvastatin) was associated with reduced cancer-specific mortality in patients with lung cancer [36]
Atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin (Before and after the diagnosis) NR 19,974 The use of statins was associated with decreased mortality risk in patients with lung cancer [37]
Lymphoma Lovastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin (Before the diagnosis) NR 18,657 The use of statins was associated with a lower risk of NHL [38]
NR(Before the chemo-immunotherapy) NR 4913 The use of statins was associated with the improved survival in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [39]
Glioblastoma NR NR 1093 The use of statins was unrelated to OS or PFS of GBM patients [40]
NR NR 2469 The use of statins was not associated with the risk of GBM [41]
NR (Before the diagnosis) NR 280,465 The use of statins was associated with the increased risk of GBM [42]
Endometrial cancer NR NR 77,509 The use of statins was not associated with the risk of endometrial cancer [43]
Kidney cancer NR NR 18,105 Statin use among patients with kidney cancer is associated with significantly improved cancer-specific and overall survival [44]
Multiple myeloma NR (Before or after the diagnosis) NR 4957 The use of statin was associated with a reduced risk of both all-cause and MM-specific mortality [45]
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma NR (After the diagnosis) NR 1194 Statin use at the time of diagnosis of HPV-negative squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the larynx, hypopharynx, and nasopharynx demonstrated improved OS and DSS [46]
  1. Abbreviations: CRC Colorectal cancer, DDS Disease-specific survival, EGFR-TKIs Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, GBM Glioblastoma multiforme, GC Gastric cancer, MM Multiple myeloma, NHL Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, NR Not reported, OS Overall survival, PCa Prostate cancer, PFS Progression-free survival