- Retraction Note
- Open Access
Retraction Note: TGF-β2 initiates autophagy via Smad and non-Smad pathway to promote glioma cells’ invasion
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research volume 40, Article number: 399 (2021)
Retraction Note: J Exp Clin Cancer Res 36, 162 (2017)
The authors have retracted this article. Concerns were raised regarding a number of figures, specifically;
Figure 1a: the panels for LC3B/WHO III and ATG5/WHO IV appear to be identical
Figure 5b: the lanes for Smad and TFG-B2 appear to be identical
Figure 7e: the panels for TGF-B2/LY2157299 and ATG7/LY2157299+CQ appear to be identical
Figure 7e: the panels for ATG5/LY2157299+CQ and MMP9/LY2157299+CQ appear to be identical
Figure 7e: the panels for ATG7/LY2157299 and MMP2/LY2157299+CQ appear to be identical
Figure 7e: the panels for TGF-B2/Con and MMP2/LY2157299 appear to be identical
In addition, the authors have stated they found some additional errors in Figs 5c, 5d and 5j. Additionally, the authors have stated they have reviewed the original data and images that should have been included in this article, but given the extent of the misplaced figures, they have agreed to retract the article. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused by this retraction.
All authors agree to this retraction.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, C., Zhang, X., Xu, R. et al. Retraction Note: TGF-β2 initiates autophagy via Smad and non-Smad pathway to promote glioma cells’ invasion. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 40, 399 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-02219-8