How should tracers be injected to detect for sentinel nodes in gastric cancer – submucosally from inside or subserosally from outside of the stomach?
© Yaguchi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 25 October 2008
Accepted: 03 December 2008
Published: 03 December 2008
In sentinel node (SN) detection for cases of early gastric cancer, the submucosal dye injection method appears to be more reasonable than the subserosal injection. To compare the two injection methods, we have focused on the rate of concordance between hot nodes (HNs) obtained from the radioisotope (RI) method and green nodes (GNs) obtained from the dye-guided method in addition to the number and distribution of GNs detected, and the sensitivity of metastatic detection.
The subjects of this study were 63 consecutive patients with gastric cancer (sT1–T2, sN0, tumor diameter ≦ 4 cm) in whom we attempted SN detection using a combination of RI and dye methods. 99mTc-tin colloid was injected a day before the surgery, and indocyanine green was injected either submucosally (n = 43) with endoscopes or subserosally (n = 20) by direct vision.
An average of hot and green nodes (H&G: 4 ± 3 vs. 4 ± 3), hot and non-green nodes (H&NG: 2 ± 3 vs. 1 ± 2), cold and green nodes (C&G: 2 ± 2 vs. 3 ± 4), and the rate of concordance (H&G/H&G + H&NG + C&G: 45 + 27% vs. 48 ± 30%) were not significantly different between the submucosal and subserosal injection methods. The spread of GNs to tier 2 stations (24% vs. 30%) and metastatic detection sensitivity (86% vs. 100%) were also not different between the submucosal and subserosal injection methods.
The tracer injection sites do not have to be limited to the submucosa.
In recent years, a number of feasibility studies for the sentinel node (SN) concept in gastric cancer have been conducted, and variable results have been reported [1–12]. We have reported that SN biopsy is a useful tool for individualizing surgery for early gastric cancer . Most researchers have used colloid particles labeled with radioisotope and/or dyes as tracers for SN detection. Radioactive tracers must be injected endoscopically into the submucosa preoperatively, since radioisotopes cannot be handled outside of the radiation controlled area under the Japanese law. In the dye procedure, however, there are variations in the method in the form of submucosal injection with endoscopes and subserosal injection of the dye agent from the outside of the gastric wall by direct vision. When a detection procedure is administered for cases of early gastric cancer, submucosal injection appears to be more reasonable, but there are no reliable comparative studies of submucosal injection and subserosal injection for this purpose. Injecting tracers precisely around the tumor, which may be most important to identify true SNs, totally depends on the skill of endoscopists in cases of submucosal injection. On the other hand, subserosal injection from the outside of the gastric wall is easy and accurate as long as the tumor location is identified during surgery. We have used a combination of a radio-guided method using 99mTc-labeled tin colloid and a dye-guided method using indocyanine green (ICG) solution. 99mTc-tin colloid was injected submucosally, and ICG solution was injected either submucosally or subserosally. In this study, we compared the two methods of injection, submucosal or subserosal, focusing on the rate of concordance between hot nodes (HNs) obtained from the RI method and green nodes (GNs) obtained from the dye-guided method. We have also focused on the number and distribution of GNs detected and the metastatic detection sensitivity. Finally, we have weighed the merits of each injection method.
Subjects and methods
The subjects of the study were 63 patients with T1-2 gastric cancer with tumor dimension of 4 cm or less and with no apparent lymph node metastasis in whom we attempted the SN detection procedure through the concurrent use of the RI and dye-guided methods during the period from January 2003 to March 2008. Of these, ICG solution was injected submucosally in 43 patients and subserosally in the remaining 20 patients.
We injected 0.5 ml of 99mTc-tin colloid at each of four sites surrounding the tumor with endoscopes a day before the surgery. Immediately following laparotomy, we injected 4 ml of 1.25% indocyanine green solution either into the submucosa surrounding the tumor with endoscopes or into the subserous and muscular layers surrounding the tumor from the outside of the stomach by direct observation. When we decided which of the two injection methods was used, we chose the one with which the tracer would be injected more accurately around the tumor. For example, subserosal injection from the outside of the stomach was chosen with a tumor located on the anterior wall of the stomach, and endoscopic submucosal injection was chosen with a tumor of the upper part of the stomach. We employed submucosal injection with a tumor on the lesser curvature since tracers could be injected directly into lymphatic vessels by subserosal injection. We avoided endoscopic submucosal injection when it was needed to inject the tracer tangentially to the gastric mucosa. In cases of subserosal injection with a tumor that was not palpable, the location of the tumor was identified by intraoperative endoscopy. Beginning 5 minutes after the injection of the dye, we dissected lymph node stations where HNs and/or GNs were distributed as quickly as possible. Then, we added dissection of the remaining lymph node stations, which was required for preoperatively planned dissection. The HNs and GNs were detected on a back table.
The rate of concordance of HNs and GNs was calculated as follows:
Concordance rate = H&G/(H&G + H&NG + C&G),
where H&G = the number of hot and green nodes, H&NG = the number of hot and non-green nodes, and C&G = the number of cold and green nodes.
All data were analyzed using the chi-square test or Mann-Whitney U test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. SN identification was done under the approval of the Institutional Review Board of the National Defense Medical College, and written informed consent was obtained from every patient.
Number of patients
Age (mean ± SD)
63 ± 8 (63 ± 8)
61 ± 15 (61 ± 16)
p = 0.61 (0.64)
p = 0.62 (0.75)
Tumor size (mean ± SD)
2.8 ± 1.8 (2.7 ± 1.3)
2.8 ± 1.3 (2.6 ± 1.5)
p = 0.71(0.44)
p = 0.89 (0.92)
p = 0.62 (0.98)
Lymph node metastasis
p = 0.46 (0.84)
p = 0.18 (0.69)
p = 0.68 (0.91)
p = 0.68 (0.72)
Pylorus preserving gastrectomy
Numbers and concordance of hot and green nodes
H & G*
4 ± 3 (4 ± 3)
4 ± 3 (4 ± 2)
p = 0.78 (0.91)
H & NG*
2 ± 3 (2 ± 3)
1 ± 2 (1 ± 2)
p = 0.45 (0.57)
C & G*
2 ± 2 (3 ± 3)
3 ± 4 (2 ± 4)
p = 0.95 (0.37)
Concordance of HN and GN
45 ± 27% (45 ± 27%)
48 ± 30% (48 ± 30%)
p = 0.42 (0.33)
GNs median, range*
5, 0–16 (5, 0–16)
6, 1–17 (6, 1–17)
p = 0.55 (0.81)
N2 distribution rate≦
p = 0.62 (1)
Lymph node metastasis according to the distribution of the tracers
H & G*
Concordance of HN and GN
Tumor size (mm)
The gastric lymphatic stream is very complicated and has been researched for a long time. It has become clear that there are three lymphatic plexuses in the gastric wall, the submucosal, muscular, and subserosal lymphatic plexuses . A submucosal dye injection appears to be more reasonable in cases of gastric cancer with tumor invasion limited to the mucosa or submucosa. However, lymphatic vessels are connected to each other by a communicating branch in the gastric wall which expands vertically . Thus, tracers injected subserosally may spread in the same way as tracers injected submucosally. Subserosal injection may enable us to inject a tracer precisely around the tumor on the grounds that it is possible to insert a needle straight . In fact, an excellent result has been reported in the feasibility study of the SN concept using serosal injection of ICG solution in patients with early gastric cancer .
To determine which method is more efficient for SN identification using ICG solution, submucosal injection or subserosal injection, we focused on the rate of concordance between HNs and GNs, the number and distribution of GNs detected, and the metastatic detection sensitivity. We found no differences in these parameters between submucosal injection and subserosal injection, although it is difficult to draw a conclusion concerning the metastatic detection sensitivity due to small number of patients with metastatic lymph nodes. If the more patients with positive node are enrolled, it might be statistically significant. Some authors were concerned that the injection site of tracers could be inaccurate by the subserosal approach because the primary lesion was not always palpable from the serosal side . In such nonpalpable cases, we used endoscopy to identify the accurate location of the primary tumor, even for subserosal dye injection. We consider such situation is adequate due to inject tracer precisely around the tumor.
Lee et al., comparing the subserosal with the submucosal dye (isosulfan blue) injection method in patients with gastric cancer, found no significant differences between them in detection rates, the mean number of SNs, or the sensitivity of the SN biopsies. They concluded that both injection methods were equally efficient for SN biopsy in patients with gastric cancer, but that the serosal injection method was preferable due to its easy technique and short operation time . Although their results are in accordance with ours, the sensitivity of detecting node metastasis was 45% for submucosal injection method and 61% for subserosal injection in their study, which were considerably low sensitivity rates as compared with our study and other studies reported previously [1, 2, 4–8, 10, 12]. We could not find any other studies that compared the two methods, submucosal and subserosal injection of tracers, for detecting SNs in gastric cancer. Choosing appropriate tracers and injecting them accurately around the tumor are essential for identifying SNs in early gastric cancer. We conclude that tracers can be injected either submucosally from inside or subserosally from outside of the stomach, as long as they are injected precisely in the area surrounding the tumor.
The authors thank Mr. Yoshio Hoshito in the Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical College Hospital, for technical supports of this study.
- Ichikura T, Morita D, Uchida T, Okura E, Majima T, Ogawa T, et al: Sentinel node concept in gastric carcinoma. World J Surg. 2002, 26: 318-22. 10.1007/s00268-001-0226-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kitagawa Y, Fujii H, Kumai K, Kubota T, Otani Y, Saikawa Y, et al: Recent advances in sentinel node navigation for gastric cancer: a paradigm shift of surgical management. J Surg Oncol. 2005, 90: 147-51. 10.1002/jso.20220.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Palaia R, Cremona F, Delrio P, Izzo F, Ruffolo F, Parisi V: Sentinel node biopsy in gastric cancer. J Chemother. 1999, 11: 230-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hiratsuka M, Miyashiro I, Ishikawa O, Furukawa H, Motomura K, Ohigashi H, et al: Application of sentinel node biopsy to gastric cancer surgery. Surgery. 2001, 129: 335-40. 10.1067/msy.2001.111699.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kitagawa Y, Fujii H, Mukai M, Kubota T, Otani Y, Kitajima M: Radio-guided sentinel node detection for gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 2002, 89: 604-8. 10.1046/j.1365-2168.2002.02065.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carlini M, Carboni F, Petric M, Santoro R, Guadagni F, Marandino F, et al: Sentinel node in gastric cancer surgery. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2002, 21: 469-73.Google Scholar
- Miwa K, Kinami S, Taniguchi K, Fushida S, Fujimura T, Nonomura A: Mapping sentinel nodes in patients with early-stage gastric carcinoma. Br J Surg. 2003, 90: 178-82. 10.1002/bjs.4031.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hayashi H, Ochiai T, Mori M, Karube T, Suzuki T, Gunji Y, et al: Sentinel lymph node mapping for gastric cancer using a dual procedure with dye- and gamma probe-guided techniques. J Am Coll Surg. 2003, 196: 68-74. 10.1016/S1072-7515(02)01594-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Isozaki H, Kimura T, Tanaka N, Satoh K, Matsumoto S, Ninomiya M, et al: An assessment of the feasibility of sentinel lymph node-guided surgery for gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer. 2004, 7: 149-53. 10.1007/s10120-004-0283-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim MC, Kim HH, Jung GJ, Lee JH, Choi SR, Kang DY, et al: Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy using 99mTc tin colloid in gastric cancer. Ann Surg. 2004, 239: 383-7. 10.1097/01.sla.0000114227.70480.14.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Osaka H, Yashiro M, Sawada T, Katsuragi K, Hirakawa K: Is a lymph node detected by the dye-guided method a true sentinel node in gastric cancer?. Clin Cancer Res. 2004, 10: 6912-8. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0476.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ichikura T, Chochi K, Sugasawa H, Yaguchi Y, Sakamoto N, Takahata R, et al: Individualized surgery for early gastric cancer guided by sentinel node biopsy. Surgery. 2006, 139: 501-7. 10.1016/j.surg.2005.09.005.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hayashi H, Ochiai T: The comparison of dye and RI method. Sentinel node navigation. A new trend in clinical oncology. Edited by: Kitajima M, Kubo A, Kitagawa Y, Fujii H. 2002, Tokyo: Kanehara Co., Ltd, 177-81. 1Google Scholar
- Hiratsuka M, Miyashiro T, Ishikawa O: The results of dye method. Sentinel node navigation. A new trend in clinical oncology. Edited by: Kitajima M, Kubo A, Kitagawa Y, Fujii H. 2002, Tokyo: Kanehara Co., Ltd., 171-76. 1Google Scholar
- Lee JH, Ryu KW, Kim CG, Kim SK, Choi IJ, Kim YW, et al: Comparative study of the subserosal versus submucosal dye injection method for sentinel node biopsy in gastric cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2005, 31: 965-8. 10.1016/j.ejso.2005.03.006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.