The intratumoral administration of ferucarbotran conjugated with doxorubicin improved therapeutic effect by magnetic hyperthermia combined with pharmacotherapy in a hepatocellular carcinoma model
© Jeon et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd 2014
Received: 10 April 2014
Accepted: 27 June 2014
Published: 18 July 2014
Local hyperthermia of tumor in conjunction with chemotherapy is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intratumoral delivery of clinically approved magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with doxorubicin to simultaneously induce magnetic hyperthermia and drug delivery in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model.
Materials and methods
HCC cells expressing luciferase were implanted into the flank of BALB/c-nu mice (n = 19). When the tumor diameter reached 7–8 mm, the animals were divided into four groups according to the injected agents: group A (normal saline, n = 4), group B (doxorubicin, n = 5), group C (MNP, n = 5), and group D (MNP/doxorubicin complex, n = 5). Animals were exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) to receive magnetic hyperthermia, and intratumoral temperature changes were measured.
Bioluminescence imagings (BLIs) were performed before treatment and at 3, 7, and 14 days after treatment to measure the tumoral activities. The relative signal intensity (RSI) of each tumor was calculated by dividing the BLI signal at each time point by the value measured before treatment. At day 14 post-treatment, all tumor tissues were harvested to assess the apoptosis rates by pathological examination.
The rise in temperature of the tumors was 1.88 ± 0.21°C in group A, 0.96 ± 1.05°C in B, 7.93 ± 1.99°C in C, and 8.95 ± 1.31°C in D. The RSI of the tumors at day 14 post-treatment was significantly lower in group D (0.31 ± 0.20) than in group A (2.23 ± 1.14), B (0.94 ± 0.47), and C (1.02 ± 0.21). The apoptosis rates of the tumors were 11.52 ± 3.10% in group A, 23.0 ± 7.68% in B, 25.4 ± 3.36% in C, and 39.0 ± 13.2% in D, respectively.
The intratumoral injection of ferucarbotran conjugated with doxorubicin shows an improved therapeutic effect compared with doxorubicin or ferucarbotran alone when the complex is injected into HCC tissues exposed to AMF for magnetic hyperthermia. This strategy of combining doxorubicin and MNP-induced magnetic hyperthermia exhibits a synergic effect on inhibiting tumor growth in an HCC model.
KeywordsHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) Magnetic hyperthermia Drug delivery system (DDS) Bioluminescence imaging (BLI)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains the fifth most common cancer as well as the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide []. Current therapeutic options, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have been unsatisfactory in most patients. Although surgical resection has been recognized the most effective treatment for HCC, its efficacy is limited to the minority of patients who have early stage disease. Patients with underlying liver disease, unsuitability for resection, or little organ availability for transplantation are not candidates for surgery [].
Hyperthermia is a very promising cancer treatment based on the hypothesis that cancerous cells are more sensitive to an increase in the tissue temperature than normal cells []. In recent years, various hyperthermic ablation therapies such as radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, and high intensity focused ultrasound have been widely introduced especially for liver cancer. Another strategy for heat induction in tumor is magnetic hyperthermia. When exposed to a high-frequency magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) generate heat through the oscillation of their magnetic moment due to Neel and Brownian relaxations []. Direct injection of MNPs into solid tumors, followed by exposure of tumors to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), has been shown to induce controlled heating at the target tumors, which leads to tumor regression []. After exposure of tumor-bearing organs to AMF, the induced heat that raises the tissue temperature to approximately 41–47°C is known to alter the function of many structural and enzymatic proteins within cells, which in turn arrests cell growth and differentiation and eventually induces apoptosis [,]. This particle-induced magnetic heating can be controlled by accurate and localized delivery of the MNPs to the target lesions, and has been under several clinical trials []. Additionally, MNPs have been investigated as drug delivery systems to improve the efficacy of drugs. The loading of drugs to MNPs can be achieved either by conjugating the therapeutic agents onto the surface of the MNPs or by co-encapsulating the drug molecules along with MNPs within the coating material envelope []. Once at the target site, MNPs can stimulate drug uptake within cancer cells by locally providing high extracellular concentrations of the drug or by direct action on the permeability of cell membranes []. Most of MNPs are not approved for use in humans because their safety and toxicity have not been clearly documented. However, ferucarbotran (Resovist; Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Leverkusen, Germany) is a clinically-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle that has been developed for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver []. Local hyperthermia of tumor tissue in conjunction with chemotherapy has been demonstrated to significantly enhance antitumor efficacy []. Here, we designed a complex made with both Resovist, an MNP approved for clinical use in humans, and doxorubicin to combine the magnetic control of heating and drug delivery into one treatment. We expected that this complex would enhance the synergistic efficacy and yield substantial promise for a highly efficient therapeutic strategy in HCC. The in vivo antitumor effect was evaluated by bioluminescence imaging (BLI), which measures the luciferase-expressing tumor cells’ activity, throughout the follow-up period.
Materials and methods
Preparation of the Resovist/doxorubicin complex
Doxorubicin was loaded on the surface of Resovist via an ionic interaction as previously described []. Resovist was loaded with doxorubicin through ionic interactions between anionically charged carboxydextran coating layer of Resovist and positively charged amino groups of doxorubicin. Predetermined amount of doxorubicin (0.2 mg, Adriamycin; Ildong Pharmaceutical, Seoul, Republic of Korea) was dissolved in 4 mL deionized water, and the aqueous solution was transferred to a 250-mL round-bottom flask. Diluted (1.38 Fe mg/mL) Resovist in 4 mL deionized water was added dropwise using a syringe pump at a rate of 0.1 mL/min, and the reaction mixture was vigorously stirred for 8 hours. Loading efficiency of doxorubicin was 100% and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy at 480 nm confirmed that there was not any doxorubicin left in the aqueous solution. The Resovist/doxorubicin complex was obtained as a solid after freeze-drying and the diameter of the complex before and after the freeze-drying was not so different based on DLS data. The concentration of doxorubicin in the complex was adjusted to 1 mg/ml. The release profile of doxorubicin from the complex was evaluated by the dialysis method. Two milliliters aqueous solution of the complex conjugated to doxorubicin (2 mg) was transferred into a dialysis membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 1 K and dialyzed against deionized water (20 mL). The temperature of the medium was changed to either 37°C or 60°C at a predetermined time, and an aliquot was sampled at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 18, 42 and 66 hours. The amount of released doxorubicin was measured by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy at 480 nm.
To test whether the conjugation process would affect the MR imaging of Resovist, we measured the MR relaxivity of the Resovist/doxorubicin complex, which was compared with that of Resovist. The particles were serially diluted from a concentration of 0.15 mM in an agarose phantom designed for relaxivity measurements, which was done using a 3-T MR scanner (Tim Trio; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Fast spin echo T2-weighted MR images of the phantom were acquired using the following parameters: relaxation time = 5000 ms, echo times = 16, 32, 48, 64, 20, 40, 60, 80, 50, or 100 ms, flip angle = 180, ETL = 18 fields of view, FOV =77×110 mm2, matrix = 256×117, slice thickness/gap = 1.4 mm/1.8 mm, and NEX = 1.
Preparation of the animal model
Hep3B, a human HCC cell-line, was transduced with a retroviral vector containing the firefly luciferase (luc) reporter gene, and a highly expressing reporter clone was isolated to establish Hep3B + luc cells. Hep3B + luc cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM; Welgene, Seoul, Korea) supplemented with 10% (v/v) heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (GIBCO, Seoul, Korea). All animal procedures were performed according to our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved protocol (SNUH-IACUC #12-0015). Male BALB/c-nude mice (n = 19), aged 6 weeks and weighing 20–25 g, were used for this study. Hep3B + luc cells were suspended at 1×106 cells/0.1 ml in serum-free DMEM and subcutaneously injected into the right flanks of the animals. Two weeks after tumor implantation, when the tumor diameter reached approximately 7–8 mm in diameter, the animals were evenly divided into 4 groups according to the injected agents: group A (n = 4) injected with normal saline, group B (n = 5) with doxorubicin (4 mg/kg), group C (n = 5) with Resovist (Fe 111.6 mg/kg), and group D (n = 5) with the Resovist/doxorubicin complex (Fe 111.6 mg/kg, doxorubicin 4 mg/kg). As the lethal dose of ferucarbotran solution in rodents was reported to be in excess of 558 mg Fe/kg [], our dosage of Resovist was within the safe range. All therapeutic agents were dissolved in the same volume of saline (0.1 ml) and injected directly into the core of tumors.
Bioluminescence imaging for the in vivo evaluation of therapeutic responses
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed using the IVIS lumina II (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA). Mice were anesthetized with 1% isoflurane (Ifran, Hana Pharm. Co, Seoul, Korea) in room air. D-luciferin (Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, MA) dissolved in PBS (1.5 mg luciferin/100ul PBS) was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 150 mg luciferin/kg, and serial images were acquired with an exposure time of 30 sec, an f/stop of 1, and pixel binning at 8 over 20 minutes to determine the peak bioluminescence. Subsequently, regions of interest (ROIs) of equal size were drawn within the tumor to measure average radiance (expressed as photons/s/cm2/sr). The BLIs were performed just prior to treatment to obtain the baseline value and at 3, 7 and 14 days after treatment. By using Living Image® 4.2 software (Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, MA), we measured the peak total tumor bioluminescent signal through standardized ROIs. To ensure longitudinal comparability of the serial measurements, we calculated the relative signal intensities (RSIs) by normalizing each measured peak total tumor bioluminescent signal in a mouse with the signal at baseline as follows: [RSI at a time-point = (peak signal intensity at a time-point/peak signal intensity at baseline)] [].
All animals were euthanized at day 14 after treatment. The extracted tumors were perfused with PBS, fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde solution, and embedded in paraffin. The tumors were sectioned at a thickness of 4 μm at the largest tumor area. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed for a general inspection of the pathologic specimens. Prussian blue staining was added to visualize the injected iron particle distribution within the tumor tissues. To evaluate the extent of tumor apoptosis for validating in vivo BLI results, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed with a commercial kit (Roche, Mannheim, Germany). TUNEL staining is a method to stain cells exhibiting apoptotic or non-apoptotic DNA damage (i.e., DNA fragmentation), such as necrotic cell death [,]. The percent area of apoptosis was calculated using NIH Image J software (NIH, Bethesda, MD). After drawing a free-hand ROI to completely cover the tumor, the number of pixels in the tumor area was counted. Within the selected tumor area, the number of pixels corresponding to the apoptosis area stained with TUNEL was also counted. The percent area of apoptosis (%) was calculated by dividing the area of the TUNEL-stained area (pixels) by the area of the total tumor (pixels).
Doxorubicin fluorescence microscopy
Fourteen days after treatment, some of the extracted tumor tissues were immediately cryosectioned at a thickness of 6 μm in the largest tumor and stored at −70°C. After washing the tissues, the cover slips were mounted onto glass slides using mounting medium (Faramount aqueous mounting medium; Dako, Carpinteria, CA). On the slides, the distribution of doxorubicin over the tumor area was observed under a fluorescence microscope (Leica DM5500B, Leica, Wetzlar, Germany) using excitation and emission wavelengths of 520 and 580 nm, respectively. The fluorescence images were acquired using the following parameters: magnification = 200×, BF: EX14 Gain 1.1 Intensity 1 gamma 45, and FLU: EX 656 Gain 4 Intensity 5 gamma 20.
All data are expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD), and the data processing and analysis were performed using SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., an IBM Company, Chicago, IL). The nonparametric analysis was conducted by the Mann–Whitney test to compare the temperature changes in tumors, BLIs values, and apoptosis rates between the experimental groups. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The characterization of the Resovist/doxorubicin complex
Tumor temperature measurement
Comparisons of the temperature changes in tumor, RSIs of BLI at day 14 post-treatment, and apoptosis rates between groups (* p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05)
Group B vs. C
Group B vs. D
Group C vs. D
RSIs of BLI
Bioluminescence imaging findings
Doxorubicin fluorescence microscopic findings
MNPs have gained considerable interest for biomedical applications over the past two decades []. Although this excitement has been driven mostly by the success of MNPs as T2 MR contrast agents [], the recent investigative trend has turned toward therapy with respect to cancer. The key properties of MNPs for cancer include drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, and MR imaging. Thus, MNPs contribute both diagnostic and therapeutic accomplishments in a single system.
Drug delivery systems are required to ensure that the drug is properly delivered to target, and nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems have been developed as potential drug carriers for decades. Because the large surface-to-volume ratio of MNPs, like other nano-carriers, enables a high loading of various functional ligands on a single platform, marked attention has been paid to their use as drug delivery vehicles. In our study, the loading efficiency of doxorubicin was 100%. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy at 480 nm confirmed that there was not any doxorubicin left in the aqueous solution, which led to a conclusion that washing step to remove unbound doxorubicin was not required.
MNP coatings provide anchor points to which drug molecules can be coupled and have incorporated traditional small molecules such as doxorubicin for cancer therapy [], as in our study. Resovist is coated with carboxydextran, to which doxorubicin was linked via ionic complexation by dropping synthesis with an average size of less than 100 nm in our study (Figure 2). When Resovist/doxorubicin complex reached tumor tissues after intratumoral injection, the complex was able to carry higher concentrations and exhibited prolonged release of doxorubicin in the tumor tissues as measured by fluorescence microscopy (Figure 9).
Magnetic hyperthermia can be used to selectively kill tumor cells via increases in tissue temperature []. When MNPs accumulating at the tumor site are exposed to AMF, MNPs absorb this energy and convert it into heat owing to the relaxation of the rotating magnetic moments induced by the AC field. Tumors are usually heated to the temperature range of 41–47°C, and cancer tissues exhibit higher heat sensitivity than normal tissues []. It also has been believed that the drug delivery to target could be increased by hyperthermia through its effects on convection and diffusion in tissues, increasing cell uptake of the drug, tumor blood flow and vascular permeability []. In our study, Resovist or the Resovist/doxorubicin complex also induced temperature increases to approximately 41°C (Figure 5A). Although magnetic hyperthermia is a promising cancer therapy, the risk of local overheating (and thus damage to normal tissues) remains the major concern, as in other clinical hyperthermia therapies such as radiofrequency ablation or high-intensity focused ultrasound. To overcome these challenges, the MNPs should be accurately delivered only to the target tumors, the temperature of which can be easily controlled by adjusting the MNP concentration delivered and the proper manipulation of the magnetic field strength. Furthermore, some thermally responsive agents that aid in specific nanoparticle retention within the tumor can reduce the diffusion of MNPs to healthy tissues adjacent to the tumor []. One of the advantages of magnetic hyperthermia over other clinical hyperthermic treatments is that one is able to repeat the treatment in a short interval without additional invasive procedures. MR scans can predict the distribution of the MNPs to prevent unwanted heating of the normal tissues. If the nanoparticles accurately cover the tumor tissues on a short-term follow-up MR, magnetic hyperthermia is able to be repeated without causing major side effects. Furthermore, local overheating may be avoided by selecting particles with a low maximal achievable temperature while preserving the magnetization for efficient heating []. Among the many MNPs, Resovist is clinically approved for contrast-enhanced MR in human [] and was previously reported to generate effective heat in AMF []. Choosing an MNP already approved for clinical use was our main strategy to facilitate early translation of our study into clinical practice. Though Resovist is not marketed as a MR contrast agent due to the emergence of a novel MR contrast, the result in our study may open a new potential other than MR contrast for its clinical use.
Ferucarbotran consists mainly of a hydrophilic colloidal solution of superparamagnetic iron oxide coated with carboxydextran. It is a complex composed of ultrafine (7nmdiameter) magnetite particles and alkali-treated dextran []. The tumor cells in the center of the tumor tissues are not sensitive to chemotherapy due to hypoxia but are sensitive to hyperthermia due to low pH value, whereas the tumor cells in the tumor periphery are sensitive to chemotherapy [,]. Hyperthermia, when it is applied to specific lesions, produces increased perfusion to the diseased area and makes the cells more permeable for better cellular uptake of agents. Therefore, when the hyperthermia is combined with chemotherapy for cancer, the heat that is generated in the targeted tumor can induce higher levels of drug accumulation in the tumor cells by the same mechanism described above. Doxorubicin is visualized by fluorescence microscopy with excitation wavelength at 480 nm [], which enables us to detect the doxorubicin deposits in the tumor tissues. In our study, the fluorescence intensity was much higher in group D than in group B, suggesting an increased and long-lasting uptake of doxorubicin into the cells in group D (Figure 9).
Although doxorubicin has been widely used as single agent or in combination with other anticancer drugs for HCC [], the drug produces many side effects derived from its nonspecific uptake into healthy normal tissues []. Therefore, recent studies have focused on the development of administration routes for doxorubicin to increase tissue selectivity []. Local administration of the agent is one promising approach with the advantage of reaching high concentrations at the target site more effectively than systemic delivery []. Although we injected the therapeutic agents directly into the tumor by the naked eye in our study, we are designing a future project to create an orthotopic liver tumor in which we can inject the therapeutic agents under image guidance using ultrasonography. Our future experiment using an orthotopic model is expected to provide more translatable data.
In this study, we performed BLI for in vivo monitoring of the therapeutic effect. BLI requires a reporter construct produce luciferase, an enzyme that provides imaging contrast by light emission resulting from luciferase-catalyzed conversion of D-luciferin to oxyluciferin in small animals []. Our data demonstrated that the tumor activity signals in group D were significantly lower than those in groups B and C at the end of follow-up period (Figure 6). Fourteen days after treatment, the BLI signal intensity reverted to 31% of the baseline value in group D, whereas those of groups B and C reverted to 90% and 113%, respectively. Although hyperthermia applied in the absence of doxorubicin exhibited a marked reduction in the BLI signal in the early stages of treatment, the signal was fully recovered at day 14 post-treatment. However, combination therapy using the Resovist/doxorubicin complex demonstrated a BLI signal that did not rebound during the 14 days post-treatment, representing persistent antitumor efficacy.
In conclusion, the biomedical application of nanomaterials is gradually increasing and is a challenging area for future research. Despite the a significant progress with respect to MNP platforms, regulatory approval for use in humans requires extensive safety studies of newly developed particles. To overcome challenges for clinical translation, we proposed an innovative approach that exploits MNPs conjugated with an anti-cancer drug to achieve efficient drug release and thermotherapy in a single platform composed of agents already approved for use in humans. We determined that combination therapy using the Resovist/doxorubicin complex could enhance anti-tumor efficacy in an HCC model by simultaneous induction of hyperthermia and drug delivery. This system enables a multi-modal therapy that can provide an efficient strategy against cancer based on both physical (heat) and chemical (drug) properties. We hope that our results will help to facilitate the clinical translation of MNPs for their future development.
This work was supported in part by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2011–0010250), and the Korean Health Technology R&D Project, Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI12C1148).
- El-Serag HB, Rudolph L: Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2007, 132: 2557-2576. 10.1053/j.gastro.2007.04.061.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz M, Roayaie S, Konstadoulakis M: Strategies for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2007, 4: 424-432. 10.1038/ncponc0844.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hegyi G1, Szigeti GP, Szász A: Hyperthermia versus oncothermia: cellular effects in complementary cancer therapy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013, 2013: 672873-10.1155/2013/672873.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jordan A, Wust P, Fähling H, John W, Hinz A, Felix R: Inductive heating of ferrimagnetic particles and magnetic fluids: physical evaluation of their potential for hyperthermia. Int J Hyperthermia. 1993, 9: 51-68. 10.3109/02656739309061478.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ito A, Tanaka K, Honda H, Abe S, Yamaguchi H, Kobayashi T: Complete regression of mouse mammary carcinoma with a size greater than 15 mm by frequent repeated hyperthermia using magnetite nanoparticles. J Biosci Bioeng. 2003, 96: 364-369.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wust P, Gneveckow U, Johannsen M, Böhmer D, Henkel T, Kahmann F, Sehouli J, Felix R, Ricke J, Jordan A: Magnetic nanoparticles for interstitial thermotherapy–feasibility, tolerance and achieved temperatures. Int J Hyperthermia. 2006, 22: 673-685. 10.1080/02656730601106037.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hilger I, Hergt R, Kaiser WA: Effects of magnetic thermal ablation in muscle tissue using iron oxide particles: an in vitro study. Invest Radiol. 2000, 35: 170-179. 10.1097/00004424-200003000-00003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thiesen B, Jordan A: Clinical applications of magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia. Int J Hyperthermia. 2008, 24: 467-474. 10.1080/02656730802104757.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wahajuddin , Arora S: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers. Int J Nanomedicine. 2012, 7: 3445-3471. 10.2147/IJN.S30320.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hong S, Leroueil PR, Janus EK, Peters JL, Kober MM, Islam MT, Orr BG, Baker JR, Banaszak Holl MM: Interaction of polycationic polymers with supported lipid bilayers and cells: nano scalehole formation and enhanced membrane permeability. Bioconjug Chem. 2006, 17: 728-734. 10.1021/bc060077y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reimer P, Balzer T: Ferucarbotran (Resovist): a new clinically approved RES-specific contrast agent for contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver: properties, clinical development, and applications. Eur Radiol. 2003, 13: 1266-1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Smet M, Hijnen NM, Langereis S, Elevelt A, Heijman E, Dubois L, Lambin P, Grüll H: Magnetic resonance guided high-intensity focused ultrasound mediated hyperthermia improves the intratumoral distribution of temperature-sensitive liposomal doxorubicin. Invest Radiol. 2013, 48: 395-405. 10.1097/RLI.0b013e3182806940.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee IJ, Ahn CH, Cha EJ, Chung IJ, Chung JW, Kim YI: Improved Drug Targeting to Liver Tumors After Intra-arterial Delivery Using Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide and Iodized Oil: Preclinical Study in a Rabbit Model. Invest Radiol. 2013, 48: 826-833. 10.1097/RLI.0b013e31829c13ef.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takamatsu S, Matsui O, Gabata T, Kobayashi S, Okuda M, Ougi T, Ikehata Y, Nagano I, Nagae H: Selective induction hyperthermia following transcatheter arterial embolization with a mixture of nano-sized magnetic particles (ferucarbotran) and embolic materials: feasibility study in rabbits. Radiat Med. 2008, 26: 179-187. 10.1007/s11604-007-0212-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tinkum KL, Marpegan L, White LS, Sun J, Herzog ED, Piwnica-Worms D, Piwnica-Worms H: Bioluminescence Imaging Captures the Expression and Dynamics of Endogenous p21 Promoter Activity in Living Mice and Intact Cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2011, 31: 3759-3772. 10.1128/MCB.05243-11.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li SD, Huang L: Nanoparticles evading the reticuloendothelial system: Role of the supported bilayer. Biochem Biophys Acta. 2009, 1788: 2259-2266. 10.1016/j.bbamem.2009.06.022.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cole AJ, Yang VC, David AE: Cancer theranostics: the rise of targeted magnetic nanoparticles Trends in Biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol. 2011, 29: 323-332. 10.1016/j.tibtech.2011.03.001.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weissleder R, Elizondo G, Wittenberg J, Rabito CA, Bengele HH, Josephson L: Ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide: characterization of a new class of contrast agents for MR imaging. Radiology. 1990, 175: 489-493. 10.1148/radiology.175.2.2326474.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Veiseh O, Gunn JW, Zhang M: Design and fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and imaging. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2010, 62: 284-304. 10.1016/j.addr.2009.11.002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Purushotham S, Ramanujan RV: Thermo responsive magnetic composite nanomaterials for multimodal cancer therapy. Acta Biomater. 2010, 6: 502-510. 10.1016/j.actbio.2009.07.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Facy O, Radais F, Ladoire S, Delroeux D, Tixier H, Ghiringhelli F, Rat P, Chauffert B, Ortega-Deballon P: Comparison of hyperthermia and adrenaline to enhance the intratumoral accumulation of cisplatin in a murine model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011, 30: 4-10.1186/1756-9966-30-4.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Le Renard PE, Jordan O, Faes A, Petri-Fink A, Hofmann H, Rüfenacht D, Bosman F, Buchegger F, Doelker E: The in vivo performance of magnetic particle-loaded injectable, in situ gelling, carriers for the delivery of local hyperthermia. Biomaterials. 2010, 31: 691-705. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.09.091.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krishnan S, Diagaradjane P, Cho SH: Nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapy: evolving strategies for prostate cancer therapy. Int J Hyperthermia. 2010, 26: 775-789. 10.3109/02656736.2010.485593.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sun X, Xing L, Ling CC, Li GC: The effect of mild temperature hyperthermia on tumor hypoxia and blood perfusion: relevance for radiotherapy, vascular targeting and imaging. Int J Hyperthermia. 2010, 26: 224-231. 10.3109/02656730903479855.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karukstis KK, Thompson EH, Whiles JA, Rosenfeld RJ: Deciphering the fluorescence signature of daunomycin and doxorubicin. Biophys Chem. 1998, 73: 249-263. 10.1016/S0301-4622(98)00150-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhu AX: Systemic therapy of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: how hopeful should we be?. Oncologist. 2006, 11: 790-800. 10.1634/theoncologist.11-7-790.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kang YM, Kim GH, Kim JI, Kim da Y, Lee BN, Yoon SM, Kim JH, Kim MS:In vivo efficacy of an intratumorally injected in situ-forming doxorubicin/poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactonediblock copolymer. Biomaterials. 2011, 32: 4556-4564. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.03.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Abd AM, Hong KY, Song SC, Kuh HJ: Pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin after intratumoral injection using a thermosensitive hydrogel in tumor-bearing mice. J Control Release. 2010, 142: 101-107. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2009.10.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim YI, Chung JW: Selective or targeted gene/drug delivery for liver tumors: advantages and current status of local delivery. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008, 2: 791-802. 10.1586/1747418.104.22.1681.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zinn KR, Chaudhuri TR, Szafran AA, O'Quinn D, Weaver C, Dugger K, Lamar D, Kesterson RA, Wang X, Frank SJ: Noninvasive bioluminescence imaging in small animals. ILAR J. 2008, 49: 103-115. 10.1093/ilar.49.1.103.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.